Among their topics are egophoric evidentiality in Bodish languages, perfect experiential constructions: the inferential semantics of direct evidence, Lhasa Tibetan predicates, copulas in Denjongke or Sikkimese Bhutia, observations on factors affecting the distributional properties of evidential
markers in Amdo Tibetan, and evidentials
in Pingwu Baima.
The three term evidential
system of 'Lhasa' Tibetan showing personal, factual, and testimonial evidentials
(personal, generic, and immediate knowledge in DeLancey's [2012: 550] terminology) is also not sanctioned by Aikhenvald's classification (cf.
2000; Studies in Evidentiality 2003; Journal of Pragmatics 33/3; LU XXXVIII 3).
in Ryukyuan; the Shuri variety of Luchuan; a typological and theoretical study of grammatical evidentiality.
The contrast between witnessed and unwitnessed evidentials
is also the same in negative clauses, which means that negative evidentials
also specify the source of the information.
Meanings expressed by linguistic elements such as epistemic modals and evidentials
contribute to the contentful meaning of the utterance--conceptual domains of epistemic assessment and evidential
validity--and are also indexical of the speaker/writer's subjective and intersubjective position (Traugott and Dasher 2002).
This development is particularly interesting because it mirrors that seen for reported evidentials
in languages that have a grammaticized system of evidentiality.
These expressions are sometimes accompanied by evidentials
in order to place emphasis on the first-hand evidence from which the personal epistemic judgements are taken.
Following Aikhenvald (2004 : 105), we regard the former as evidentials
and the latter as evidential
In most Germanic languages as well as in Finnish evidentials
are expressed through modals, which acquire secondary meanings (De Haan 2005a: 315).
The latter would, on the one hand, allow us to draw more specific conclusions concerning semantics; on the other hand, it would show us where we should place the grammatical evidentials
in the verbal system amongst such categories as mood, tense, and aspect.
I have data about the use of evidentials
in negative clauses only in case of probabilitive--see examples (10), (16), (17), (23), (26), (29), (34).