Lists of Facts > Facts about Countries around the World

Facts about Countries around the World

This section provides basic information about the independent nations of the world: official name (in English); capital city; internet country code; flag description; national anthem, motto, and symbols (when available); geographical description of location; total area; brief climate description; proper terms for nationality; population numbers; languages spoken; and information on ethnic groups and religions.

Afghanistan

Official name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Capital city: Kabul
Internet country code: .af
Flag description: Three vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by an inscription above pronouncing the Muslim faith: “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his Prophet” and “Allah is Great.”
National anthem: “Soroud-e-Melli” (Hymn of the People)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Total area: 249,935 sq. mi. (647,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Nationality: noun: Afghan(s); adjective: Afghan
Population: 31,889.923 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%
Languages spoken: Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much bilingualism
Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi’a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Albania

Official name: Republic of Albania
Capital city: Tirana
 Internet country code: .al
Flag description: Red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
National anthem: Himni Flamurit (“ The Flag Hymn”; first line in English translation: “United all around the flag”) Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece in the south and Montenegro and Serbia to the north
Total area: 11,099 sq. mi. (28,748 sq. km.)
Climate: Mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Nationality: noun: Albanian(s); adjective: Albanian
Population: 3,600,523 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Albanian 98.6%, Greeks 1.17%, others (Vlachs, Roma, Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians,
Balkan Egyptians, and Bulgarians) 0.23%
Languages spoken: Albanian (official), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

Algeria

Official name: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Capital city: Algiers
Internet country code: .dz
Flag description: Two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red cres­cent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
National anthem: “Quassaman,” by Moufdi Zakaria
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Total area: 919,590 sq. mi. (2,381,740 sq. km.)
Climate: Arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand­laden wind especially common in summer
Nationality: noun: Algerian(s); adjective: Algerian
Population: 33,333,216 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Religions: Sunni Muslin (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Andorra

Official name: Principality of Andorra
Capital city: Andorra la Vella
Internet country code: .ad
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms cen­tered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quar­tered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
National anthem: “Hymna Andorra” (first line: “El gran Carlemany mon pare dels alarbs me deslliurà”), lyrics by Dr Benlloch, Episcopal Co-Prince of Andorra, music by Father Marfany
National motto: Virtus Unita Fortior
National flower: Grandalla (daffodil family)
Geographical description: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Total area: 180 sq. mi. (468 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Nationality: noun: Andorran(s); adjective: Andorran
Population: 71,822 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998 CIA est.)
Languages spoken: Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic

Angola

Official name: Republic of Angola
Capital city: Luanda
Internet country code: .ao
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
Geographical description: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Land area: 481,400 sq. mi. (1,246,700 sq. km.)
Climate: Semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Nationality: noun: Angolan(s); adjective: Angolan
Population: 12,263,596 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Mbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Languages spoken: Portuguese (official), Umbundu, Kim­bundu, Kikongo dialects
Religions: indigenous religions 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 country est.)

Antigua and Barbuda

Official name: Antigua and Barbuda
Capital city: St. John’s
Internet country code: .ag
Flag description: Red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
National anthem: “Fair Antigua and Barbuda / We thy sons and daughters stand” (first lines), lyrics by Novelle Hamilton Richards, music by Walter Garnet Picart Cham­bers
National motto: “Each Endeavouring, All Achieving”
National animal: European Fallow Deer. (Dama dama dama)
National bird: Frigate Bird, Man-o’-War or Weather Bird. (Fregata magnificens L.) National flower: Agave, Dagger Log or Batta Log (Barbuda); (Agave karatto Miller)
National fruit: Antigua “Black” Pineapple (Ananas como­sus (L.) Merril)
National sea creature: Hawksbill Turtle or ‘oxbill. (Eretmochelys imbricata)
National stone: Petrified wood
National tree: Whitewood. (Bucida buceras L.)
Geographical description: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-south­east of Puerto Rico
Total area: 170 sq. mi. (442 sq. km.); Antigua: 108 sq. mi. (281 sq. km.) and Barbuda: 62 sq. mi. (161 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s); adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Population: 69,481 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Black African 91%, mixed African and European 4.4%, European 1.7%, other 2.9%
Languages spoken: English (official), local dialects
Religions: Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8%

Argentina

Official name: Argentine Republic
Capital city: Buenos Aires
Internet country code: .ar
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May
National anthem: “Himno Nacional Argentino” (first lines: Oíd, mortales, el grito sagrado: “¡libertad, libertad, liber­tad!”), lyrics by Vicente López y Planes, music by Blas Parera
National flower: flower of the ceibo tree (also called seibo, seíbo or bucaré)
Geographical description: Southern South America, bor­dering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Total area: 1.1 million sq. mi. (2.8 million sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Nationality: noun: Argentine(s); adjective: Argentine
Population: 40,301,927 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: European (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian), Amerindian or other non-white groups 3%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official), English, Italian, Ger­man, French
Religions: Nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Armenia

Official name: Republic of Armenia
Capital city: Yerevan
Internet country code: .am
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
National anthem: “Mer Hayrenik” (Our Fatherland), lyrics by Mikael Nalbandian
Geographical description: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Total area: 11,500 sq. mi. (29,800 sq. km.)
Climate: Highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Nationality: noun: Armenian(s); adjective: Armenian
Population: 2,971,650 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)
Languages spoken: Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
Religions: Armenian Apostolic Church 94.7%, other Chris­tian 4%, Yezidi 1.3%

Aruba

Official name: Aruba Capital city: Oranjestad Internet country code: .aw Flag description: Blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner
National anthem: “Aruba Dushi Tera”
Geographical description: Island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela
Total area: 112 sq. mi. (180 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical marine; little seasonal temperature varia­tion
Nationality: noun: Aruban(s); adjective: Aruban
Population: 100,018 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mixed European/Caribbean Amerindian 80%, other 20%
Languages spoken: Dutch (official) 5.8%, Papiamento (Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) 66.3%, Span­ish, English
Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant and other Christian 8%, other (Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish) 10%

Australia

Official name: Commonwealth of Australia
Capital city: Canberra
Internet country code: .au
Flag description: Blue with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-point­ed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the fed­eration of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia’s internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the South­ern Cross constellation in white with one small five-point­ed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
National anthem: “Advance Australia Fair” by Peter Dodds McCormick
National flower: Golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha Benth.)
National gemstone: Opal
Geographical description: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Total area: 3 million sq. mi. (7.7 million sq. km.)
Climate: Generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Nationality: noun: Australian(s); adjective: Australian
Population: 20,434,176 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1%
Languages spoken: English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified 5.8%
Religions: Roman Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, other Christian 20.5%, Buddhist 1.9%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 12.7%, none 15.3%

Austria

Official name: Republic of Austria
Capital city: Vienna
Internet country code: .at
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
National anthem: “Land der Berge “ (Land of Mountains), lyrics by Paula von Preradovic, composer uncertain
Geographical description: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Total area: 32,369 sq. mi. (83,858 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Nationality: noun: Austrian(s); adjective: Austrian
Population: 8,199,783 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Austrians, Croats, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma, Sinti
Languages spoken: German
Religions: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, non-denominational 12 %, unknown 3.5%

Azerbaijan

Official name: Republic of Azerbaijan
Capital city: Baku
Internet country code: .az
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band
National anthem: “Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan!” lyrics by Ahmed Javad, music by Useyir Hajibeyov
Geographical description: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Total area: 33,436 sq. mi. (86,600 sq. km.)
Climate: Dry, semiarid steppe
Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s) or Azeri(s); adjective: Azer­
baijani or Azeri
Population: 8,120,247 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9%
Languages spoken: Azerbaijani (Azeri) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other and unspecified 4.3%
Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armen­ian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8%

Bahamas

Official name: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Capital city: Nassau
Internet country code: .bs
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side
National anthem: “March On Bahamaland” by Timothy Gibson
National motto: “Forward Upward Onward Together”
National bird: Flamingo
National fish: Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans)
National flower: Yellow elder
National song: “God Bless Our Sunny Clime,” lyrics by Rev. Philip Rahming, music by Timothy Gibson and Clement Bethel
National tree: Lignum vitae
Geographical description: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida, northeast of Cuba
Total area: 5,382 sq. mi. (13,939 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s); adjective: Bahamian
Population: 305,655 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Black African 85%, white European 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%
Languages spoken: English (official), Creole
Religions: Baptist 35.4%, Anglican 15.1%, Roman Catholic 13.5%, Pentecostal 8.1%, Chuch of God 4.8%, Methodist 4.2%, other Christian 15.2%, none or unspecified 2.9%, other 0.8%

Bahrain

Official name: Kingdom of Bahrain
Capital city: Manama
Internet country code: .bh
Flag description: Red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
National anthem: “Bahrainona, Maleekuna” (first line; English translation: Our Bahrain, our King)
Geographical description: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Total area: 274 sq. mi. (727 sq. km.)
Climate: Arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Nationality: noun: Bahraini(s); adjective: Bahraini
Population: 708,573, which includes 235,108m non-nation­als (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
Religions: Citizen population is 98% Muslim (about 70% Shi’a and 30% Sunni), other religious groups among non-national population include Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Baha’is, Buddhists, and Sikhs

Bangladesh

Official name: People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Capital city: Dhaka
Internet country code: .bd
Flag description: Green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
National anthem: “Amar Sonar Bangla” (My Golden Ben­gal); (first line in English: My Bengal of gold, I love you), lyrics in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, translated by Syed Ali Ahsan
National animal: Royal Bengal tiger
National bird: Doel or magpie robin
National flower: Shapla or water lily National fruit: Jackfruit (Kathal)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Myanmar (Burma) and India
Total area: 55,813 sq. mi. (147,570 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy
monsoon (June to October)
Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi(s); adjective: Bangladeshi
Population: 150,448,339 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, non-Bengali Muslims and trib­al groups 2%
Languages spoken: Bangla (official; also known as Ben­gali), English
Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Christian 0.3%, Bud­dhist 0.6%, other 0.3%

Barbados

Official name: Barbados
Capital city: Bridgetown
Internet country code: .bb
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident cen­tered on the gold band; the trident head represents inde­pendence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)
National anthem: “We loyal sons and daughters all” (first line of chorus), lyrics by Irving Burgie, music by C. Van Roland Edwards
National flower: Pride of Barbados (Dwarf Poinciana or Flower Fence; Poinciana pulcherrima linnaeus)
Geographical description: Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Total area: 166 sq. mi. (431 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Nationality: noun: Barbadian(s) or, informally, Bajan(s); adjective: Barbadian; informally, Bajan
Population: 280,946 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Black African 90%, white European 4%, Asian and or mixed 6%
Languages spoken: English
Religions: Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other Protestant 12%, Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Belarus

Official name: Republic of Belarus
Capital city: Minsk
Internet country code: .by
Flag description: Red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red
National anthem: Lyrics by M. Klimkovich and U. Karyz­na, music by N. Sakalouski
Geographical description: Eastern Europe, east of Poland
Total area: 80,100 sq. mi. (207,600 sq. km.)
Climate: Cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Nationality: noun: Belarusian(s); adjective: Belarusian
Population: 9,724,723 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, Jewish 0.3%, other 0.8%
Languages spoken: Belarusian and Russian
Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, Roman Catholic 14%, Protestant 2%, other (including Autocephalous Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim, and Krishna) 4%

Belgium

Official name: Kingdom of Belgium
Capital city: Brussels
Internet country code: .be
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France
National anthem: “La Brabançonne”
National motto: French: “L’Union fait la force,” Dutch: “Eendracht maakt macht” (Strength lies in unity)
Geographical description: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
Total area: 12,566 sq. mi. (32,547 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Nationality: noun: Belgian(s); adjective: Belgian
Population: 10,392,226 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%
Languages spoken: Dutch 60%, French 40%, German less than 1%
Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, others (including Protes­tant, Jewish, Muslim, Anglican, Greek and Russian Ortho­dox, and none) 25%

Belize

Official name: Belize
Capital city: Belmopan
Internet country code: .bz
Flag description: Blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the national motto Sub umbra florero on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland
National anthem: “Land of the Free”
National motto: “Sub Umbra Florero” (Under the shade I flourish)
National animal: Tapir or Mountain Cow (Tapirello Bairdii)
National bird: Keel-Billed Toucan (Ramphastos Solfuran­tus)
National flower: Black Orchid (Encyclia Cochleatum)
National tree: Mahogany tree (Swietenia Macrophilla)
Geographical description: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Total area: 8,867 sq. mi. (22,966 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Nationality: noun: Belizean(s); adjective: Belizean
Population: 294,385 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%
Languages spoken: Spanish 46%, Creole 32.9%, Mayan dialects 8.9%, English (official) 3.9%, Garifuna (Carib) 3.4%, German 3.3%, other 1.4%, unknown 0.2%
Religions: Roman Catholic 49.6%, Pentecostal 7.4%, Angli­can 5.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Mennonite 4.1%, Methodist 3.5%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.5%, other (includ­ing Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist) 14%, none 9.4%

Benin

Official name: Republic of Benin
Capital city: Porto-Novo is official capital city; Cotonou is the seat of government
Internet country code: .bj
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a vertical green band on the hoist side
National anthem: “L’Aube Nouvelle” (The New Dawn)
National motto: “Fraternité - Justice - Travail”
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and Togo
Total area: 43,483 sq. mi. (116,622 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Nationality: noun: Beninese (singular and plural); adjective: Beninese
Population: 8,078,314 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Fon and related groups 39.2%, Adja and related groups 15.2%, Yoruba and related groups 12.3%, Bariba and related groups 9.2%, Peulh and related groups 7%, Ottamari and related groups 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related groups 4%, Dendi and related groups 2.5%, other (including Europeans) 1.6%, unspecified 2.9%
Languages spoken: French (official), Fon and Yoruba pre­dominant in the south, Nagot, Bariba, Dendi and other tribal languages in the north
Religions: Roman Catholic 27.1%, Muslim 24.4%, Vodun (Voodoo) 17.3%, Celestial Christian 5%, Methodist 3.2 %, other Christian 7.5%, other traditional local religious groups 6%, other religious groups 1.9%, and none 6.5%

Bermuda

Official name: Bermuda Capital city: Hamilton Internet country code: .bm
Flag description: Red, with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Geographical description: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)
Total area: 22.7 sq. mi. (58.8 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s); adjective: Bermudian
Population: 66,163 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Black African 54.8%, white European 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.4%
Languages spoken: English (official)
Religions: Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Methodist 4%, other Protestant 7%, other 12%, unaffiliat­ed 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14%

Bhutan

Official name: Kingdom of Bhutan
Capital city: Thimphu
Internet country code: .bt
Flag description: Divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower tri­angle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
National anthem: “In the Kingdom of Druk, where cypresses grow” (first line in English translation)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, between China and India
Total area: 17,953 sq. mi. (46,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Nationality: noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural); adjective: Bhutanese
Population: 634,982 (2006 government est.)
Ethnic groups: Bhote (Drukpa) 50%, ethnic Nepalese (including Lhotsampas) 35%, indigenous or migrant groups 15%
Languages spoken: Dzongka (official), English, Tibetan dialects, Nepalese dialects
Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist (state religion) 75%, Indian-and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Bolivia

Official name: Republic of Bolivia
Capital city: La Paz
Internet country code: .bo
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
Geographical description: Central South America, south­west of Brazil
Total area: 425,000 sq. mi. (1.1 million sq. km.)
Climate: Varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Nationality: noun: Bolivian(s); adjective: Bolivian
Population: 9,119,152 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) 30%, Aymara 25%, European 15%
Languages spoken: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Evangelical Methodist 5%

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Official name: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Capital city: Sarajevo
Internet country code: .ba
Flag description: A wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medi­um blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the tri­angle
National anthem: “Intermeco”
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Total area: 19,767 sq. mi. (51,197 sq. km.)
Climate: Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s); adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Population: 4,552,198 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Bosniak (formerly Bosnian, associated with religious term Muslim) 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6%
Languages spoken: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%

Botswana

Official name: Republic of Botswana
Capital city: Gaborone
Internet country code: .bw
Flag description: Light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
National anthem: “Fatshe La Rona” (Our Land)
Geographical description: Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Total area: 224,710 sq. mi. (582,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Nationality: noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural); adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) Population: 1,815,508 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa (or “San”) 3%, other (including Kgalagadi, Herero, Bayeyi, Hambukush, Khoi, and European) 7%
Languages spoken: Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sek­galagadi 2.8%, English (official) 2.1%, other and unspeci­fied 9%
Religions: Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspe­ficied 0.4%, none 20.6%

Brazil

Official name: Federative Republic of Brazil
Capital city: Brasilia
 Internet country code: .br
Flag description: Green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ordem e progresso (Order and Progress)
National anthem: “Himno Nacianal Brasileiro,” lyrics by Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada, music by Francisco Manuel da Silva
National bird: Sabiá or Thrush (Turdus rufiventris)
National flower: Ipê-amarelo - (Tecoma chrysostricha)
Geographical description: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Total area: 3,290,000 sq. mi. (8,511,965 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Nationality: noun: Brazilian(s); adjective: Brazilian
Population: 190,010,647 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: White European (including Portuguese, Italian, German, Spanish ancestry) 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white European and black African) 38.5%, black African 6.2%, other (including Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7%
Languages spoken: Portuguese, Spanish, English, French
Religions: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiri­tualist 1.3%, Bantu/Vodun 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4%

Brunei

Official name: Brunei Darussalam
Capital city: Bandar Seri Begawan
Internet country code: .bn
Flag description: Yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superim­posed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned cres­cent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
National anthem: “Allah Peliharakan Sultan” (God Bless His Majesty), lyrics by Yura Halim, music by Haji Awang Besar Sagap
National motto: “Always Render Service by God’s Guid­ance”
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Total area: 2,226 sq. mi. (5,765 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s); adjective: Bruneian
Population: 374,577 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Languages spoken: Malay, English, Chinese
Religions: Muslim (official religion) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (including indigenous religions) 10%

Bulgaria

Official name: Republic of Bulgaria Capital city: Sofia Internet country code: .bg Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red National anthem: “Mila Rodino” (O Motherland Most Dear), based on music and lyrics by Tsvetan Radoslavov
National motto: “Unity Makes Strength”
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Total area: 42,823 sq. mi. (110,912 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s); adjective: Bulgarian
Population: 7,322,858 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, and Cir­cassian) 2%
Languages spoken: Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8%
Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 84.5%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other 4%

Burkina Faso

Official name: Burkina Faso
Capital city: Ouagadougou
 Internet country code: .bf
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem: “L’ Hymne de la Victoire” / “Ditanyè” (Hymn of Victory)
Geographical description: Western Africa, north of Ghana
Total area: 106,000 sq. mi. (274,200 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Nationality: noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural); adjective: Burkinabe
Population: 14,326,203 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mossi over 40%, other (including Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani) about 60%
Languages spoken: French (official), Dioula and other native languages 90%
Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous religions 24%, Roman Catholic 17%, Protestant 3%

Myanmar/Burma

Official name: Union of Burma/Myanmar
Capital city: Rangoon
Internet country code: .mm
Flag description: Red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 14 white, five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the seven administrative divisions and seven states
National anthem: “Kaba Makye” (Our Free Homeland; first line in English translation: “We shall always love Myanmar, Land of our forefathers”) by Y. M. B. Saya Tin
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand
Total area: 261,228 sq. mi. (676,578 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid sum­mers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Nationality: noun: Burmese (singular and plural); adjective: Burmese
Population: 47,373,958 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%
Languages spoken: Burmese, minority languages
Religions: Buddhist 89%, Muslim 4%, Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%, traditional indigenous 1%, other 2%

Burundi

Official name: Republic of Burundi
Capital city: Bujumbura
 Internet country code: .bi
 Flag description: Divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the cen­ter bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)
National anthem: “Burundi Bwacu” (Hymn of Independ­ence)
National motto: Unity-Work-Progress
Geographical description: Central Africa, east of Demo­cratic Republic of the Congo
Total area: 10,747 sq. mi. (27,830 sq. km.)
Climate: Equatorial; high plateau with considerable alti­tude variation; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Nationality: noun: Burundian(s); adjective: Burundian
Population: 8,390,505 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
Languages spoken: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, indigenous religions 23%, Muslim 10%, Protestant 5%

Cambodia

Official name: Kingdom of Cambodia
Capital city: Phnom Penh
 Internet country code: .kh
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered tem­ple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the cen­ter of the red band; only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design
National anthem: “Our Country”
National motto: “Nation, Religion, King”
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Total area: 69,900 sq. mi. (181,040 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to Novem­ber); dry season (December to April); little seasonal tem­perature variation
Nationality: noun: Cambodian(s); adjective: Cambodian
Population: 13,995,904 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Languages spoken: Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Religions: Theravada Buddhist 95%, other (Islam, Christian, and indigenous religions) 5%

Cameroon

Official name: Republic of Cameroon
Capital city: Yaounde
Internet country code: .cm
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star cen­tered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem: “Ô Cameroun, berceau de nos ancêtres” (O Cameroon, Thou Cradle of Our Fathers)
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Total area: 184,000 sq. mi. (475,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Nationality: noun: Cameroonian(s); adjective: Cameroonian
Population: 18,060,382 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Languages spoken: French (official), English (official), 24 major African language groups
Religions: Indigenous religions 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant 20%, Muslim 20%

Canada

Official name: Canada
Capital city: Ottawa
 Internet country code: .ca
Flag description: Two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11­pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
National anthem: “O Canada,” English lyrics by Justice Robert Stanley Weir, French lyrics by Adolphe-Basile Routhier, music by Calixa Lavallée
National symbols: maple leaf, maple tree, and beaver
Geographical description: Northern North America, bor­dering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous United States
Total area: 3.8 million sq. mi. (9.9 million sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Nationality: noun: Canadian(s); adjective: Canadian
Population: 33,390,141 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: British Isles ancestry 28%, French ancestry 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other (Arab, Asian, African) 6%, mixed ancestry 26%
Languages spoken: English (official) 59.3%, French (offi­cial) 23.2%, other 17.5%
Religions: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3%, other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16%

Cape Verde

Official name: Republic of Cape Verde
Capital city: Praia
Internet country code: .cv
Flag description: Five unequal horizontal bands; the top­most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10 yel­low five-pointed stars, each representing one of the islands, is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side
National anthem: “Cântico da Liberdade”
Geographical description: Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Total area: 1,557 sq. mi. (4,033 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Nationality: noun: Cape Verdean(s); adjective: Cape Verdean
Population: 423,613 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Creole (mixed African and Portuguese) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Languages spoken: Portuguese, Crioulo (Portuguese-West African blend)
Religions: Roman Catholic more than 85%, Protestant less than 15%

Central African Republic

Official name: Central African Republic
Capital city: Bangui
Internet country code: .cf
Flag description: Four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in cen­ter; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band
National anthem: “Le Renaissance” (Rebirth)
Geographical description: Central Africa, north of Demo­cratic Republic of the Congo
Total area: 242,000 sq. mi. (622,983 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers Nationality: noun: Central African(s); adjective: Central African
Population: 4,369,038 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandja 13%, Mboum 7%, M’baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%
Languages spoken: Sangho
Religions: Indigenous religions 35%, Roman Catholic 25%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 15%

Chad

Official name: Republic of Chad
Capital city: N’Djamena
Internet country code: .td
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; design was based on the flag of France
National anthem: “La Tchadienne” (The Chadian)
Geographical description: Central Africa, south of Libya
Total area: 496,000 sq. mi. (1,284,634 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical in south, desert in north
Nationality: noun: Chadian(s); adjective: Chadian
Population: 9,885,661 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tand­jile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3%
Languages spoken: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in the south), more than 120 other languages and dialects
Religions: Muslim 53.1%, Roman Catholic 20.1%, Protes­tant 14.2%, indigenous religions 7.3%, other and unknown 2.2%, none 3.1%

Chile

Official name: Republic of Chile
Capital city: Santiago
Internet country code: .cl
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbol­izes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the United States flag
National anthem: “Cancion Nacionale de Chile” (National Song of Chile; first line: “Puro Chile, es tu cielo azulado”), lyrics by Eusebio Lillo, music by Ramón Carnicer
Geographical description: Southern South America, bor­dering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
Total area: 302,778 sq. mi. (756,945 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in cen­tral region; cool and damp in south
Nationality: noun: Chilean(s); adjective: Chilean
Population: 16,284,741 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Spanish descent and mixed Spanish-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%
Languages spoken: Spanish
Religions: Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah’s Witness 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3%

China

Official name: People’s Republic of China Capital city: Beijing
Internet country code: .cn
Flag description: Red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner
National anthem: March of the Volunteers, lyrics by Tian Han, music by Nie Er
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Total area: 3.7 million sq. mi. (9,596,960 sq. km.)
Climate: Extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural); adjective: Chinese
Population: 1,321,851,888 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Languages spoken: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Can­tonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkein-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and other minority languages
Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3-4%, Mus­lim 1-2%; officially atheist

Colombia

Official name: Republic of Colombia
Capital city: Bogota
Internet country code: .co
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
National bird: Condor
National flower: Orchid (Cattleya trianae)
National tree: Wax palm (Ceroxylon quindiuense)
Geographical description: Northern South America, bor­dering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Total area: 440,000 sq. mi. (1,138,910 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Nationality: noun: Colombian(s); adjective: Colombian
Population: 44,379,598 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo 58%, white 20%, Afro-Colombian 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Languages spoken: Spanish
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

Comoros

Official name: Union of the Comoros
Capital city: Moroni
Internet country code: .km
Flag description: Four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mahore (Mayotte - territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the crescent, stars, and color green are tradi­tional symbols of Islam
National anthem: “Udzima Wamasiwa” (Union des Óles), lyrics by Said Hachim Sidi Abderemane, music by Kamil­dine Abdallah et Said Hachim Sidi Abderemane
Geographical description: Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the Mozambique Chan­nel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Mada­gascar and northern Mozambique
Total area: 838 sq. mi. (2,171 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Nationality: noun: Comoran(s); adjective: Comoran
Population: 711,417 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Congo, Democratic Republic of

Official name: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Capital city: Kinshasa
Internet country code: .cd
Flag description: Sky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner
National anthem: “Debout Congolaise!” (Arise Congolese!)
National motto: Justice - Paix - Travail (Justice, Peace, Work)
Geographical description: Central Africa, northeast of Angola
Total area: 905,063 sq. mi. (2,345,410 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural); adjective: Congolese
Population: 65,751,512 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: More than 200 African ethnic groups; the Bantu family (Mongo, Luba, Kongo) and Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) comprise about 45% of the population
Languages spoken: French (official), Lingala, Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimban­guist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (including indigenous and syncretic faiths) 10%

Congo, Republic of

Official name: Republic of the Congo
Capital city: Brazzaville
Internet country code: .cg
Flag description: Divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem: “La Congolaise”
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Total area: 132,000 sq. mi. (342,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural); adjective: Congolese or Congo
Population: 3,800,610 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M’Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and others 3%
Languages spoken: French (official), Lingala, Monokutuba, and Kikongo and other local languages and dialects
Religions: Christian 50%, indigenous religions 48%, Mus­lim 2%

Costa Rica

Official name: Republic of Costa Rica
Capital city: San Jose
Internet country code: .cr
Flag description: Five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white elliptical disk on the hoist side of the red band; above the coat of arms a light blue ribbon con­tains the words “America Central” and just below it near the top of the coat of arms is a white ribbon with the words, Republica Costa Rica
National anthem: “Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera” (first line: Noble Homeland, Your Beautiful Flag), lyrics by José María Zeledón, music by Manuel María Gutiérrez
National bird: Yiguirro (Turdus grayi)
National flower: Guaria Morada (Cattleya skinneri)
National symbol of work: la carreta costarricense (Costa Rican ox-cart)
National tree: Guanacaste Tree (Enterolobium ciclocarpum)
Geographical description: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama
Total area: 19,730 sq. mi. (51,100 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in high­lands
Nationality: noun: Costa Rican(s); adjective: Costa Rican
Population: 4,133,884 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: European (including mestizo) 94%, African 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official), Caribbean Creole English dialect
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jeho­vah’s Witness 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%

Cote d’Ivoire

Official name: Republic of Cote d’Ivoire
Capital city: Yamoussoukro
Internet country code: .ci
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar to the flag of Ire­land, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
National anthem: “L’Abidjanaise” (Song of Abidjan)
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Total area: 124,500 sq. mi. (322,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
Nationality: noun: Ivoirian(s); adjective: Ivoirian
Population: 18,013,409 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other (including 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French) 2.8%
Languages spoken: French (official), 60 local dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken
Religions: Muslim 35-40%, indigenous religions 25-40%, Christian 20-30%

Croatia

Official name: Republic of Croatia
 Capital city: Zagreb
Internet country code: .hr
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms (red-and-white checkered)
National anthem: “Lijepa nasa domovino” (Our Beautiful Homeland), lyrics by Antun Mihanovi´c, music by Josip Runjanin
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Total area: 21,831 sq. mi. (56,542 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental cli­mate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Nationality: noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s); adjective: Croatian
Population: 4,493,312 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%. other (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) 5.9%
Languages spoken: Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slo­vak, and German) 2.9%
Religions: Roman Catholic 87.8%, Serbian Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2%

Cuba

Official name: Republic of Cuba
Capital city: Havana
Internet country code: .cu
Flag description: Five equal horizontal bands of blue (top, center, and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilat­eral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center
National anthem: “La Bayamesa” (The Bayamo Song) by Pedro Figueredo
Geographical description: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Total area: 44,200 sq. mi. (110,860 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
Nationality: noun: Cuban(s); adjective: Cuban
Population: 11,394,043 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mulatto 51%, European 37%, African 11%, Chinese 1%
Languages spoken: Spanish
Religions: Roman Catholic, Santeria, Protestant, Jehovah’s Witness, Jewish

Cyprus

Official name: Republic of Cyprus
Capital city: Nicosia
Internet country code: .cy
Flag description: White with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turk­ish communities
National anthem: “Imnos pros tin Eleftherian” (The Hymn to Liberty)
National plant: Cyprus cyclamen
National tree: Golden oak (Quercus alnifolia)
Geographical description: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey
Total area: 3,572 sq. mi. (9,251 sq. km.); 3,355 sq. km. Are in Turkish-controlled north Cyprus
Climate: Temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Nationality: noun: Cypriot(s); adjective: Cypriot
Population: 788,457 (July 2007 CIA est.); est. 264,000 reside in Turkish-controlled north Cyprus
Ethnic groups: Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5%
Languages spoken: Greek, Turkish, English
Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other (including Maronite and Armenian Apostolic) 4%

Czech Republic

Official name: Czech Republic
Capital city: Prague
Internet country code: .cz
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslova­kia)
National anthem: “Kde domov muj?” (Where Is My Home?), lyrics by Josef Kajetán Tyl, music by Frantisek Skroup
National symbols: Lion, eagle, linden tree
Geographical description: Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Total area: 30,450 sq. mi. (78,864 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Nationality: noun: Czech(s); adjective: Czech
Population: 10,228,744 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%,
other (including Roma, Silesian, Polish, and German) 4%
Languages spoken: Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8%
Religions: Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59%

Denmark

Official name: Kingdom of Denmark
 Capital city: Copenhagen
Internet country code: .dk
Flag description: Red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Swe­den
National anthems: Royal anthem: “Kong Christian stod ved højen mast” (King Christian stood by lofty mast), lyrics by Johannes Ewald, original source of melody is unknown; national anthem: “Der er et yndigt land” (There is a lovely land), lyrics by Adam Oehlenschläger, music by Hans Ernst Krøyer
Geographical description: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Ger­many (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn)
Total area: 16,639 sq. mi. (43,094 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Nationality: noun: Dane(s); adjective: Danish
Population: 5,468,120 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali
Languages spoken: Danish, English, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Christian (including other Protestant and Roman Catholic) 3%, Muslim 2%

Djibouti

Official name: Republic of Djibouti
Capital city: Djibouti
Internet country code: .dj
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Soma­lia
Total area: 8,450 sq. mi. (21,883 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; torrid, dry
Nationality: noun: Djiboutian(s); adjective: Djiboutian
Population: 496,374 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other (including French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian) 5%
Languages spoken: French (official), Arab (official), Somali, Afar
Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Dominica

Official name: Commonwealth of Dominica
Capital city: Roseau
Internet country code: .dm
Flag description: Green, with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)
National anthem: “Isle of beauty, isle of splendour” (first line)
National bird: Sisserou parrot
Geographical description: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago
Total area: 290 sq. mi. (754 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Nationality: noun: Dominican(s); adjective: Dominican
Population: 72,386 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 86.8%, mixed African and European 8.9%, Carib Amerindian 2.9%, white 0.8%, other 0.7%
Languages spoken: English (official), French patois
Religions: Roman Catholic 61.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Pentecostal 5.6%, Baptist 4.1%, Methodist 3.7%, Church of God 1.2%, Jehovah’s Witness 1.2%, other Chris­tian 7.7%, Rastafarian 1.3%, Other (including Muslim and Baha’i) or unspecified 1.6%, none 6.1%

Dominican Republic

Official name: Dominican Republic
Capital city: Santo Domingo
Internet country code: .do
Flag description: A centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by an olive branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, Dios, Patria, Liber­tad (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, Republica Dominicana appears on a red ribbon
National bird: “Cigua Palmera”
National flower: Flor de la Caoba
Geographical description: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
Total area: 18,704 sq. mi. (48,442 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
Nationality: noun: Dominican(s); adjective: Dominican
Population: 9,365,818 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mixed African and European 73%, Euro­pean 16%, African 11%
Languages spoken: Spanish
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%

Ecuador

Official name: Republic of Ecuador
Capital city: Quito
Internet country code: .ec
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms super­imposed at the center of the flag
National anthem: info in Spanish at http://www.presidencia.gov.ec/modulos.asp?id=20
Geographical description: Western South America, border­ing the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Total area: 106,888 sq. mi. (276,840 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s); adjective: Ecuadorian
Population: 13,755,680 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and other European 7%, African 3%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official), Quechua and other indigenous languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%

Egypt

Official name: Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital city: Cairo
Internet country code: .eg
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation
National anthem: “My homeland, my homeland, my hal­lowed land” (first line in English translation), lyrics by Younis al-Qadi, music by Sayed Darwish
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Total area: 386,000 sq. mi. (1,001,450 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s); adjective: Egyptian
Population: 80,335,036 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin,
and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian and other European (pri­marily Italian and French) 1%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), English, French
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic Christian 9%, other Christian 1%

El Salvador

Official name: Republic of El Salvador
Capital city: San Salvador
Internet country code: .sv
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms cen­tered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words Republica de El Salvador en la America Central
National anthem: “Saludemos la patria orgullosos” (first line of chorus), lyrics by Juan José Cañas, music by Juan Aberle
National bird: Torogoz or Talapo
National flower: Izote flower
National tree: Maquilishuat
Geographical description: Central America, bordering the
North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Total area: 8,008 sq. mi. (20,742 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry sea­
son (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Nationality: noun: Salvadoran(s); adjective: Salvadoran
Population: 6,948,073 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo 90%, European 9%, Amerindian 1%
Languages spoken: Spanish, Nahua
Religions: Roman Catholic about 48%, Protestant 28%, other Christian less than 5%, none 14.6%

Equatorial Guinea

Official name: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Capital city: Malabo
Internet country code: .gq
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto Unidad, Paz, Justicia (Unity, Peace, Justice)
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
Total area: 10,827 sq. mi. (28,050 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; always hot, humid
Nationality: noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatogu­inean(s); adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Population: 551,201 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba1.1%, other 1.4%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official) 67.6%, French (offi­cial) and others, including Fang and Bubi 32.4%
Religions: Christian 93%, indigenous religions 5%, other (including Muslim and Baha’i) 2%

Eritrea

Official name: State of Eritrea
Capital city: Asmara
Internet country code: .er
Flag description: Red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle
National emblem: Camel
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Total area: 48,000 sq. mi. (125,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (heaviest rainfall June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Nationality: noun: Eritrean(s); adjective: Eritrean
Population: 4,906,585 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Tigrigna 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%
Languages spoken: Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrigna, other Cushitic languages
Religions: Sunni Muslim 50%, Orthodox Christian 30%, Roman Catholic 13%, other (including Protestant, Sev­enth-Day Adventist, Jehovah’s Witness, Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha’i) less than 5%, indigenous religions 2%

Estonia

Official name: Republic of Estonia Capital city: Tallinn Internet country code: .ee Flag description: Pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
National anthem: “My Native Land,” lyrics by Johann Voldemar Jannsen, music by Fredrik Pacius
National bird: Swallow
National flower: Cornflower
National stone: Limestone
Geographical description: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Total area: 17,462 sq. mi. (45,226 sq. km.)
Climate: Maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Nationality: noun: Estonian(s); adjective: Estonian
Population: 1,315,912 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2%
Languages spoken: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7%
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox Christian 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliat­ed 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1%

Ethiopia

Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Capital city: Addis Ababa Internet country code: .et Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Total area: 472,000 sq. mi. (1,127,127 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s); adjective: Ethiopian
Population: 76,511,887 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara 25%, Tigre 7%, Somali 6%, Sidama 9%, Gurage 2%, Wolaita 4%, Afar 4%, other 3%
Languages spoken: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Arabic, Guaragigna, Oromigna, English, Somali
Religions: Ethiopian Orthodox 40%, Sunni Muslim 45-50%, Protestant 5%, remainder affiliate with indigenous reli­gions

Fiji

Official name: Republic of the Fiji Islands
Capital city: Suva
Internet country code: .fj
Flag description: Light blue with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove
National anthem: “Meda Dau Doka” (first line in English: “Blessing grant oh God of nations on the isles of Fiji”), lyrics by Michael Francis Alexander Prescott, music from traditional Fijian song
National symbol: Tabua (whale’s tooth)
Geographical description: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Total area: 7,056 sq. mi. (18,376 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Nationality: noun: Fiji Islander or Fijian(s); adjective: Fiji or Fijian (“Fijian” should only be used to describe a thing or person of indigenous Fijian origin)
Population: 918,675 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Fijian 54.8%, Indian 37.4%, other (including European, Chinese, other Pacific Islanders) 7.9%
Languages spoken: English (official), Fijian (official), Hindi
Religions: Methodist 34.5%, Roman Catholic 7.2%, Assem­bly of God 3.8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 2.6%, other Christian 4.9%, Hindu 34% (Sanatan 25%, Arya Samaj 1.2%, other Hindu 7.8%), Sunni Muslim 4.2%, other Mus­lim 2.8%, other or unspecified 5.6%, none 0.3%

Finland

Official name: Republic of Finland
Capital city: Helsinki
Internet country code: .fi
Flag description: White with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
National anthem: “Maamme” (translated from the Swedish “Vårt land” [Our Land]), lyrics by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, music by Fredrik Pacius
National animal: Brown bear (Ursus arctos)
National bird: Whooper swan (Cygnus Cygnus)
National fish: Perch (Perca fluviatilis)
National flower: Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis)
National rock: Granite
National tree: Birch (Betula pendula)
Geographical description: Northern Europe, bordering the
Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Total area: 130,558 sq. mi. (338,144 sq. km.)
Climate: Cold temperate; potentially subarctic but compar­atively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Nationality: noun: Finn(s); adjective: Finnish
Population: 5,238,460 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Sami 0.1%
Languages spoken: Finnish (official) 92%, Swedish (offi­cial) 5.6%, other (including Sami and Russian) 2.4%
Religions: Lutheran Church of Finland 84.2%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5%

France

Official name: French Republic
Capital city: Paris
Internet country code: .fr (territories’ codes are French Guinea .gf, Guadeloupe .gp, Martinique .mq, and Reunion .re)
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the “Le drapeau tricol­ore” (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution; the official flag for all French dependent areas
National anthem: “La Marseillaise” by Rouget de Lisle
National emblem: Gallic rooster
National motto: “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité” (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity)
Geographical description: The continental territory is con­sidered “metropolitan France” and is located in western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the United Kingdom; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain.
Locations of French territories are as follows: French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar Total area: 212,741 sq. mi. (551,000 sq. km.)
Climate: metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to­northwesterly wind known as mistral French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temper­ature variation Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurri­canes) every eight years on average Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with eleva­tion; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)
Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), French­woman(women); adjective: French
Population: Total including territories: 63,718,187; metro­politan France only: 60,876,136 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Metropolitan France: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, African, Indochinese, and Basque minori­ties
Territories: African, European, mixed African and Euro­pean, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
Languages spoken: French 100% (declining dialects and languages in metropolitan France include Provencal, Bre­ton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish; French and various Creole patois spoken in territories)
Religions: metropolitan France: Roman Catholic 83-88%, Muslim 5-10%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, unaffiliated 4%; territories: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, and others

Gabon

Official name: Gabonese Republic
Capital city: Libreville
Internet country code: .ga
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue
National anthem: “La Concorde”
Motto: “Gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple et pour le peuple”
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Total area: 103,347 sq. mi. (267,667 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; always hot, humid
Nationality: noun: Gabonese (singular and plural); adjective: Gabonese
Population: 1,454,867 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Approximately 40 Bantu tribes, including Fang, Bapounou, Nzebi, and Obamba; about 150,000 expatriates from Europe and elsewhere in Africa
Languages spoken: French (official), Fang, Myene, and other local languages
Religions: Christian 55%-75%, indigenous religions and Muslim less than 1%

Gambia

Official name: Republic of The Gambia
Capital city: Banjul
Internet country code: .gm
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green
National anthem: “For The Gambia, our homeland” (first line), adapted from the traditional Mandinka song “Foday Kaba Dumbuya”
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
Total area: 4,361 sq. mi. (11,300 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Nationality: noun: Gambian(s); adjective: Gambian
Population: 1,688,359 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other African 4%, non-African 1%
Languages spoken: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, and other indigenous languages
Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous religions 1%

Republic of Georgia

Official name: Republic of Georgia
Capital city: Tbilisi
 Internet country code: .ge
 Flag description: White rectangle, in its central portion a red cross connecting all four sides of the flag; in each of the four corners is a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; the five-cross flag appears to date back to the 14th century
National anthem: “Freedom” (translated by Irakli Chark­viani), lyrics by David Magradze, music by Zakaria Paliashvili
Geographical description: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Total area: 26,911 sq. mi. (69,700 sq. km.)
Climate: Warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Nationality: noun: Georgian(s); adjective: Georgian
Population: 4,646,003 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, other 2.5%
Languages spoken: Georgian (official) 71%, Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%; Abkhaz is the official language in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
Religions: Orthodox Christian 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian Apostolic 3.9&, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7%

Germany

Official name: Federal Republic of Germany
Capital city: Berlin
Internet country code: .de
 Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
National anthem: Third verse of “Das Lied der Deutschen” by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, sung to Joseph Haydn’s “Kaiserhymne”
Geographical description: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Total area: 137,821 sq. mi. (357,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind Nationality: noun: German(s); adjective: German Population: 82,400,996 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other (includ­ing Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish) 6.1%
Languages spoken: German
Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%

Ghana

Official name: Republic of Ghana
Capital city: Accra
Internet country code: .gh
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star cen­tered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
National anthem: “God bless our homeland Ghana” (first line)
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d’Ivoire and Togo
Total area: 92,100 sq. mi. (238,538 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s); adjective: Ghanaian
Population: 22,931,299 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8%
Languages spoken: Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other 36.1% (includes English [official])
Religions: Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other Christian 11%, Muslim 15.9%, indigenous religions 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1%

Greece

Official name: Hellenic Republic
Capital city: Athens
 Internet country code: .gr
Flag description: Nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbol­izes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country
National anthem: “Hymn to Freedom” (English translation by Rudyard Kipling), first two verses of poem by Dionys­ios Solomos, music by Nicholas Mantzaros
Geographical description: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Total area: 51,146 sq. mi. (131,957 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers Nationality: noun: Greek(s); adjective: Greek
Population: 10,706,290 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (per­cents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity)
Languages spoken: Greek (official) 99%, other (including English, French, Turkish, Albanian) 1%
Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other (including Jewish, Catholic, Protestant and other reli­gions) 0.7%

Grenada

Official name: Grenada
Capital city: Saint George’s
Internet country code: .gd
Flag description: A rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three cen­tered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world’s second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative divisions
National anthem: “Hail! Grenada, land of ours” (first line)
Geographical description: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Total area: 133 sq. mi. (344 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Nationality: noun: Grenadian(s); adjective: Grenadian
Population: 89,971 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 82%, mixed African and European 13%, European and East Indian 5%, and trace of
Arawak/Carib Amerindian
Languages spoken: English (official), French patois
Religions: Roman Catholic 44%; Anglican 12%; Pentecostal 11%; Seventh-Day Adventist 11%; Methodist, Presbyteri­an, Church of God, Baptist, and Evangelical more than 2%; Jehovah’s Witnesses, Brethren, Baha’i, Hindu, Mora­vian, Muslim, Rastafarian, and Salvation Army 1% or less; none 4%

Guatemala

Official name: Republic of Guatemala
Capital city: Guatemala City
Internet country code: .gt
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription Libertad 15 de Septiembre de 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all super­imposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath
National bird: Quetzal
Geographical description: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Total area: 42,042 sq. mi. (108,890 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Nationality: noun: Guatemalan (s); adjective: Guatemalan
Population: 12,728,111 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K’iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q’eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1%
Languages spoken: Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan

Guinea

Official name: Republic of Guinea
Capital city: Conakry
Internet country code: .gn
 Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Total area: 95,000 sq. mi. (245,860 sq. km.)
Climate: Generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Nationality: noun: Guinean (s); adjective: Guinean
Population: 9,947,814 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, other ethnic groups 10%
Languages spoken: French (official), local ethnic languages
Religions: Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous religions 7%

Guinea-Bissau

Official name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Capital city: Bissau
 Internet country code: .gw
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem: “Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada”
National motto: Unidade, Luta, Progress (Union, Fight, Progress)
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Total area: 13,946 sq. mi. (36,120 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Nationality: noun: Guinean(s) or Bissau-Guinean; adjective: Guinean or Bissau-Guinean
Population: 1,472,780 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
Languages spoken: Portuguese (official), Crioulo, French, African languages
Religions: Indigenous religions 50%, Muslim 45%, Chris­tian 5%

Guyana

Official name: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
Capital city: Georgetown
Internet country code: .gy
Flag description: Green, with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green
National anthem: “Dear land of Guyana of rivers and plains” (first line)
Geographical description: Northern South America, bor­dering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
Total area: 83,000 sq. mi. (214,970 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, Novem­ber to January)
Nationality: noun: Guyanese (singular and plural); adjective: Guyanese
Population: 769,095 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: East Indian 43%, African 30%, Amerindian 9%, other (European, Chinese, and mixed) 17%
Languages spoken: English, Amerindian languages (pri­marily Carib and Arawak), Guyanese Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu
Religions: Christian 50%, Hindu 35%, Muslim 10%, other 5%

Haiti

Official name: Republic of Haiti
Capital city: Port-au-Prince
Internet country code: .ht
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L’union fait la force (Union Makes Strength)
National anthem: “La Dessalinienne,” lyrics by Justin Lhérisson, music by Nicolas Geffrard
Geographical description: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Repub­lic
Total area: 10,714 sq. mi. (27,750 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Nationality: noun: Haitian(s); adjective: Haitian
Population: 8,706,497 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 95%, European and mixed African and European 5%
Languages spoken: French (official), Creole (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%; roughly half of the population practices vodun (voodoo)

Honduras

Official name: Republic of Honduras
Capital city: Tegucigalpa
Internet country code: .hn
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Repub­lic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua
National anthem: “Your flag is a splendor of sky” (first line in English translation); lyrics by Augusto Constancio Coello, music by Carlos Hartling
National flower: Orquid Rhyncholaelya Digviana
Geographical description: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Total area: 43,278 sq. mi. (112,090 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Nationality: noun: Honduran(s); adjective: Honduran
Population: 7,483,763 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, African 2%, European 1%
Languages spoken: Spanish, Amerindian languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%

Hong Kong

Official name: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region [of China]
Internet country code: .hk
Flag description: Red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Total area: 426 sq. mi. (1,104 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Nationality: noun: Chinese or Hong Konger; adjective: Chi­nese or Hong Konger
Population: 6,980,412 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 94.9%, Filipino 2.1%, other 3%
Languages spoken: Cantonese (official) 89.2%, other Chi­nese dialects 6.4%, English (official) 3.2%, other 1.2%
Religions: Indigenous religions 90%, Christian 10%

Hungary

Official name: Republic of Hungary
Capital city: Budapest
 Internet country code: .hu
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
National anthem: “Himnusz” (first line in English transla­tion: O, my God, the Magyar bless), lyrics by Ferenc Kölc­sey, music by Ferenc Erkel
Geographical description: Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Total area: 35,910 sq. mi. (93,030 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Nationality: noun: Hungarian(s); adjective: Hungarian
Population: 9,956,108 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Magyar 89.9%, Roma 4% (est.), German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Languages spoken: Magyar 98.2%, other 1.8%
Religions: Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5%

Iceland

Official name: Republic of Iceland
Capital city: Reykjavik
 Internet country code: .is
Flag description: Blue with a red cross outlined in white extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dan­nebrog (Danish flag)
National anthem: “Ó, Gu vors lands” (O, God of Our Land), lyrics by Matthías Jochumsson, music by Svein­björn Sveinbjörnsson
Geographical description: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the United Kingdom
Total area: 39,600 sq. mi. (103,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers
Nationality: noun: Icelander(s); adjective: Icelandic
Population: 301,931 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts 94%, population of foreign origin 6%
Languages spoken: Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
Religions: Lutheran Church of Iceland 85.5%, Reykjavik Free Church 2.1%, Roman Catholic Church 2%, Hafnar­fjorour Free Church 1.5%, other Christian 2.7%, other or unspecified 3.8%, unaffiliated 2.4%

India

Official name: Republic of India
Capital city: New Delhi
Internet country code: .in
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band
National anthem: “Jana-gana-mana” by Rabindranath Tagore (“Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,” Tagore’s translation of first line)
National animal: Tiger (Panthera tigris)
National bird: Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus)
National flower: Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn)
National fruit: Mango
National song: “Vande Mataram” by Bankimchandra Chatterji (first line translated by Sri Aurobindo: “I bow to thee, Mother”)
National tree: Indian fig tree or banyan tree (Ficus ben­galensis)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Total area: 1.27 million sq. mi. (3,287,590 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Nationality: noun: Indian(s); adjective: Indian
Population: 1,129,866,154 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mon­goloid and other 3%
Languages spoken: Hindi (official) 30%, English (official) widely spoken, and 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kan­nada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit
Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other (including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi) 1.8%, unspecified 0.1%

Indonesia

Official name: Republic of Indonesia
Capital city: Jakarta
Internet country code: .id
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
National anthem: “Indonesia Raya” (Great Indonesia) by Wage Rudolf Supratman
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Total area: 736,000 sq. mi. (1,919,440 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s); adjective: Indonesian
Population: 234,693,997 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, others 26%
Languages spoken: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, Buddhist, other, or unspecified 3.4%

Iran

Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran
Capital city: Tehran
Internet country code: .ir
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized rep­resentation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; Allah Akbar (God Is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
Total area: 636,295 sq. mi. (1.648 million sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspi­an coast
Nationality: noun: Iranian(s); adjective: Iranian
Population: 65,397,521 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
Languages spoken: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Tur­kic languages (besides Turkish) 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Religions: Muslim 98% (Shi’a 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha’i) 2%

Iraq

Official name: Republic of Iraq
Capital city: Baghdad
Internet country code: .iq
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase Allahu Akbar (God Is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Per­sian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Yemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egypt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin cen­tered in the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Per­sian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
Total area: 168,753 sq. mi. (437,072 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, some­times causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Nationality: noun: Iraqi(s); adjective: Iraqi
Population: 27,499,638 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turko­man, Chaldean, Assyrian, or others less than 5%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi’a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%

Ireland

Official name: Ireland
Capital city: Dublin
Internet country code: .ie
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange
National anthem: “The Soldier’s Song” by Peadar Kearney
National emblem: Harp
Geographical description: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain
Total area: 27,136 sq. mi. (70,282 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Nationality: noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural); adjective: Irish
Population: 4,109,086 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Celtic, English
Languages spoken: English (official), Irish (or Gaelic, also official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 88.4%, Church of Ireland 3%, other Christian 1.6%, Muslim, 1%, Jewish 0.1%, other, unspecified, or none 8.35%

Israel

Official name: State of Israel
Capital city: Jerusalem
Internet country code: .il
Flag description: White with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag
National anthem: “Hatikva”
National emblem: Menorah
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Total area: 7,850 sq. mi. (20,330 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Nationality: noun: Israeli(s); adjective: Israeli
Population: 6,426,679 (includes about 187,000 Israeli set­tlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem; July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Jewish 76.4% (Israel-born 67.1%, Europe/America-born 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 23.6%
Languages spoken: Hebrew (official), Arabic (official for Arab minority), English, Russian
Religions: Jewish 76.4%, Muslim 16%, Arab Christians 1.7%, other Christian 0.4%, Druze 1.6%, unspecified 3.9%

Italy

Official name: Italian Republic
Capital city: Rome
Internet country code: .it
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797
National anthem: “Fratelli d’Italia” (Brothers of Italy), lyrics by Geoffredo Mameli, music by Michele Novaro
Geographical description: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Total area: 116,303 sq. mi. (301,225 sq. km.)
Climate: Predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Nationality: noun: Italian(s); adjective: Italian
Population: 58,147,733 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Languages spoken: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d’Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minori­ty in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Religions: Roman Catholic about 90% (about one-third reg­ularly attend services), other 10% (includes longstanding Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Mus­lim immigrant community)

Jamaica

Official name: Jamaica
Capital city: Kingston
Internet country code: .jm
Flag description: Diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)
National anthem: “Eternal Father bless our land” (first line), composed by Hugh Sherlock, Robert Lightbourne, Mapletoft Poulle and Mrs. Poulle
National bird: Doctor-Bird (Trochilus polytmus) or Swal­low-Tail Hummingbird
National flower: Lignum Vitae (Guiacum officinale)
National fruit: Ackee (Blighia sapida)
National motto: “Out of Many One People”
National song: “I Pledge My Heart,” lyrics by Victor Stafford Reid, sung to tune of “I Vow to Thee My Coun­try”
National tree: Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus)
Geographical description: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Total area: 4,244 sq. mi. (10,991 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Nationality: noun: Jamaican(s); adjective: Jamaican
Population: 2,780,132 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 90.9%, East Indian 1.3%, Chinese 0.2%, European 0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.1%
Languages spoken: English, patois
Religions: Protestant 62.5% (Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, Pentecostal 9.5%, Other Church of God 8.3%, Baptist 7.2%, New Testament Church of God 6.3%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.3%, Anglican 3.6%, other Christian 7.7%), Roman Catholic 2.6%, other (including Rastafarian and Jewish) or unspeci­fied 14.2%, none 20.9%

Japan

Official name: Japan
Capital city: Tokyo
 Internet country code: .jp
 Flag description: White with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center
National anthem: “Kimigayo,” lyrics from traditional poem of unknown authorship, music by Hayashi Hiro­mori
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula
Total area: 145,902 sq. mi. (377,864 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Nationality: noun: Japanese (singular and plural); adjective: Japanese
Population: 127,433,494 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.7%
Languages spoken: Japanese
Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)

Jordan

Official name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Capital city: Amman
Internet country code: .jo
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of black
(top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate; white, repre­senting the Ummayyad Caliphate; and green, represent­ing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I
National anthem: “A-Sha-al Maleek”
Geographical description: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia
Total area: 34,495 sq. mi. (89.342 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Nationality: noun: Jordanian(s); adjective: Jordanian
Population: 6,053,193 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Languages spoken: Arab (official), English
Religions: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations) 6%, other (several small Shi’a Muslim and Druze populations) 2%

Kazakhstan

Official name: Republic of Kazakhstan
Capital city: Astana
Internet country code: .kz
Flag description: Sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a national ornamentation in gold
National anthem: “We are a valiant people, sons of hon­our” (first line in English translation), lyrics by Muzafar Alimbayev, Kadyr Myrzaliyev, Tumanbai Moldagaliyev and Zhadyra Daribayeva, music by Mukan Tulebayev, Eugeny Brusilovsky and Latif Khamidi
Geographical description: Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River in eastern­most Europe
Total area: 1.05 million sq. mi. (2.7 million sq. km.)
Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Nationality: noun: Kazakhstani(s); adjective: Kazakhstani
Population: 15,284,929 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Kazakh 55.8%, Russian 28.3%, Ukrainian 3.3%, Uzbek 2.6%, German 1.8%, Uyghur 1.5%, other 5.0%
Languages spoken: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of interethnic communication”) 95%
Religions: Sunni Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Kenya

Official name: Republic of Kenya
Capital city: Nairobi
Internet country code: .ke
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior’s shield covering crossed spears is superim­posed at the center
National anthem: “Ee Mungu nguvu yetu” (first line in English translation: “O God of all creation”)
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Total area: 224,960 sq. mi. (582,646 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Nationality: noun: Kenyan(s); adjective: Kenyan
Population: 36,913,721 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Languages spoken: English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous religions 10%, other (including Hindu, Sikh, Jewish, Baha’i) 2%

Kiribati

Official name: Republic of Kiribati
Capital city: Tarawa
Internet country code: .ki
 Flag description: The upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean
Geographical description: Oceania, group of 33 coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Aus­tralia; note - on 1 January 1995, Kiribati proclaimed that all of its territory lies in the same time zone as its Gilbert Islands group (UTC +12) even though the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands under its jurisdiction lie on the other side of the International Date Line
Total area: 266 sq. mi. (719 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Nationality: noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural, pro­nounced ee-keer-ah-bhass); adjective: I-Kiribati
Population: 107,817 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Micronesian 98.8%, other 1.2%
Languages spoken: English (official), Gilbertese/I-Kiribati
Religions: Roman Catholic 52%, Protestant (Congregation­al) 40%, other (includes Seventh-Day Adventist, Muslim, Baha’i, Latter-day Saints, Church of God) 8%

Korea, North

Official name: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Capital city: Pyongyang
Internet country code: .kp
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea
Total area: 47,000 sq. mi. (120,410 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
Nationality: noun: Korean(s); adjective: Korean
Population: 23,301,725 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Korean; small ethnic Chinese and Japanese populations
Languages spoken: Korean
Religions: Buddhism, Confucianism, Shamanism, Chongdogyo, Christian; autonomous religious activities have
been virtually nonexistent since 1945

Korea, South

Official name: Republic of Korea
Capital city: Seoul
Internet country code: .kr
Flag description: White with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field
National anthem: “Aegukga” (Love the Country)
National flower: Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus Syriacus L.)
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea
Total area: 38,022 sq. mi. (98,477 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Nationality: noun: Korean(s); adjective: Korean
Population: 49,044,790 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Korean; small Chinese minority
Languages spoken: Korean, English
Religions: Christian 26.3% (Protestant 19.7%, Roman Catholic 6.6%), Buddhist 23.2%, other or unknown 1.3%, none 49.3%

Kuwait

Official name: State of Kuwait
Capital city: Kuwait City
Internet country code: .kw
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green
(top), white, and red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side; design, which dates to 1961, based on the Arab revolt flag of World War I
National anthem: “Kuwait, My Country, May you be safe and glorious!” (first line in English translation), lyrics by Meshari Al-Adwani, music by Ibrahim Al-Soula
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Per­sian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
Total area: 6,880 sq. mi. (17,820 sq. km.)
Climate: Dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Nationality: noun: Kuwaiti(s); adjective: Kuwaiti
Population: 2,505,559 (includes 1,291,354 non-nationals; July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
Languages spoken: Arab (official), English
Religions: Muslim 80% (Sunni 70%, Shi’a 30% among Kuwaiti citizens), other (includes Christian, Hindu, Parsi, Buddhist, Sikh) 20%

Kyrgyzstan

Official name: Kyrgyz Republic
Capital city: Bishkek
Internet country code: .kg
Flag description: Red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representa­tion of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt
Geographical description: Central Asia, west of China
Total area: 77,181 sq. mi. (198,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Nationality: noun: Kyrgyzstani(s); adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Population: 5,284,149 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 67%, Uzbek 14%, Russian 11%, Dungan (ethnic Chinese Muslims) 1%, Uygur 1%, Tatars 0.9%, German 0.3%, other 4.8%
Languages spoken: Kyrgyz (official) 64.7%, Uzbek 13.6%, Russian (official) 12.5%, Dungun 1%, other 8.2%
Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%

Laos

Official name: Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Capital city: Vientiane
Internet country code: .la
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with a large white disk centered in the blue band
National anthem: “Xat Lao”
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam
Total area: 91,430 sq. mi. (236,800 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to Novem­ber); dry season (December to April)
Nationality: noun: Lao(s) or Laotian(s); adjective: Lao or Laotian
Population: 6,521,998 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: More than 40 ethnic groups, broken down descriptively as follows: Lao Loum (lowland) 68%, Lao Theung (upland) 22%, Lao Soung (highland) including the Hmong and the Yao 9%, ethnic Vietnamese/Chinese 1%
Languages spoken: Lao (official), French, English, local languages
Religions: Buddhist 65%, indigenous religions 32.9%, Christian 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.8%

Latvia

Official name: Republic of Latvia
Capital city: Riga
Internet country code: .lv
 Flag description: Three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (half-width), and maroon
National anthem: “Dievs, sv¯et¯ı Latviju!” (God bless Latvia!), by K¯arlis Baumanis (better known as Bauman˛u K¯arlis)
National bird: Balt¯a cielava or white wagtail (Motacilla alba)
National flower: P¯ıpene or daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare,
earlier also known as Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)
National insect: Two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata)
National river: Daugava, the “river of fate” or “mother of rivers”
National stone: Amber
National trees: Linden, or lime tree (Tilia cordata, Latvian: liepa) and the oak (Quercus robur, Latvian: ozols)
Geographical description: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania
Total area: 24,938 sq. mi. (64,589 sq. km.)
Climate: Maritime; wet, moderate winters
Nationality: noun: Latvian(s); adjective: Latvian
Population: 2,259,810 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Latvian 59%, Russian 28.5%, Belarusian 3.8%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Polish 2.4%, other (including Lithuanian) 3.8%
Languages spoken: Latvian (official; also called Lettish) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 20%, Russian Orthodox 15%

Lebanon

Official name: Lebanese Republic
Capital city: Beirut
 Internet country code: .lb
Flag description: Three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree  centered in the white band
National anthem: “An-Nashid Al-Watani Al-Lubnani” (All for the country, for the glory, for the flag), lyrics by Rashid Nakhle, music by Wadih Sabra
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Total area: 4,015 sq. mi. (10,400 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; mountains experience heavy winter snows
Nationality: noun: Lebanese (singular and plural); adjective: Lebanese
Population: 3,925,502 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% (note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians).
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Religions: Muslim (Shi’a, Sunni, Druze, Isma’ilite, Alawite or Nusayri) 59.7%, Christian (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant) 39%, other 1.3%

Lesotho

Official name: Kingdom of Lesotho
Capital city: Maseru
Internet country code: .ls
Flag description: Three horizontal stripes of blue (top), white, and green in the proportions of 3:4:3; the colors represent rain, peace, and prosperity respectively; cen­tered in the white stripe is a black Basotho hat represent­ing the indigenous people; the flag was unfurled in Octo­ber 2006 to celebrate 40 years of independence
Geographical description: Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
Total area: 11,718 sq. mi. (30,355 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Nationality: noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural); adjective: Basotho
Population: 2,125,262 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%
Languages spoken: Sesotho (southern Sotho; official), Eng­lish (official), Zulu, Xhosa
Religions: Christian 80%, including Roman Catholic (majority), Lesotho Evangelical, Anglican, other denomi­nations; other religions include Islam, Hindu, indigenous religions

Liberia

Official name: Republic of Liberia
Capital city: Monrovia
Internet country code: .lr
Flag description: Eleven equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the United States flag
National anthem: “All Hail, Liberia Hail!”, lyrics by Daniel Bashiel Warner, music by Olmstead Luca
National bird: Pepperbird
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone
Total area: 43,000 sq. mi. (111,369 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
Nationality: noun: Liberian(s); adjective: Liberian
Population: 3,195,931 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, Dei, Bella, Mandingo, and Mende), Americo-Liberians 2.5% (descendants of immigrants from the US who had been slaves), Congo People 2.5% (descendants of immi­grants from the Caribbean who had been slaves)
Languages spoken: English (official), more than 15 indige­nous languages
Religions: Christian 40%, Muslim 20%, indigenous reli­gions 40%

Libya

Official name: Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Capital city: Tripoli
Internet country code: .ly
Flag description: Plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Total area: 679,358 sq. mi. (1,759,540 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Nationality: noun: Libyan(s); adjective: Libyan
Population: 6,036,914 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, other (including Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians) 3%
Languages spoken: Arabic, English, French, Italian
Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%

Liechtenstein

Official name: Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital city: Vaduz
Internet country code: .li
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band
National anthem: “Oben am jungen Rhein lehnet sich Liechtenstein an Alpenhöhn” (first line), sung to the music of “God Save the King”
Geographical description: Central Europe, between Aus­tria and Switzerland
Total area: 61.7 sq. mi. (160 sq. km.)
Climate: Continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Nationality: noun: Liechtensteiner(s); adjective: Liechten­stein
Population: 34,247 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Alemannic 86%, Italian, Turkish, and other 14%
Languages spoken: German (official), Alemannic dialect
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2%

Lithuania

Official name: Republic of Lithuania
Capital city: Vilnius
Internet country code: .lt
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
Geographical description: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Total area: 26,080 sq. mi. (65,200 sq. km.)
Climate: Transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s); adjective: Lithuanian
Population: 3,575,439 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 84.6%, Polish 6.3%, Russian
5.1%, other or unspecified 4%
Languages spoken: Lithuanian (official) 84.6%, Russian, and Polish
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5%

Luxembourg

Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital city: Luxembourg
Internet country code: .lu
 Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
National anthem: “Ons Hémécht” (Our Motherland)
National flower: Rose
Geographical description: Western Europe, between France and Germany
Total area: 999 sq. mi. (2,586 sq. km.)
Climate: Modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Nationality: noun: Luxembourger(s); adjective: Luxem­
bourg, Luxembourgian, Luxembourgish
Population: 480,222 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo), Belgians, French, and Germans
Languages spoken: Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administra­tive language), English
Religions: Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13%

Macau

Official name: Macau Special Administrative Region [of China]
Internet country code: .mo
Flag description: Light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Total area: 10.9 sq. mi. (28.2 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm sum­mers
Nationality: noun: Macanese, Chinese (singular and plu­ral); adjective: Macanese, Chinese
Population: 456,989 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 95.7%, Macanese (mixed Por­tuguese and Asian ancestry) 1%, other 3.3%
Languages spoken: Portuguese (official), Cantonese (offi­cial), Hokkien, Mandarin, other Chinese dialects
Religions: Buddhist, Roman Catholic

Macedonia

Official name: Republic of Macedonia
Capital city: Skopje
Internet country code: .mk
Flag description: A yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Total area: 9,928 sq. mi. (25,713 sq. km.)
Climate: Warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s); adjective: Macedonian
Population: 2,055,915 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turk­ish 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2%
Languages spoken: Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8%
Religions: Eastern Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63%

Madagascar

Official name: Republic of Madagascar
Capital city: Antananarivo
Internet country code: .mg
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
National anthem: “Ry Tanindraza nay malala ô” (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
National motto: “Tanindrazana, Fahafahana, Fandrosoana” (Fatherland, Liberty, Progress)
Geographical description: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Total area: 228,880 sq. mi. (592,800 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural); adjective: Malagasy
Population: 19,448,815 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Languages spoken: Malagasy, French, English
Religions: Indigenous religions 52%, Christian 41%, Mus­lim 7%

Malawi

Official name: Republic of Malawi
Capital city: Lilongwe
Internet country code: .mw
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun cen­tered in the black band
Geographical description: Southern Africa, east of Zambia
Total area: 45,747 sq. mi. (118,484 sq. km.)
Climate: Sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Nationality: noun: Malawian(s); adjective: Malawian
Population: 13,603,181 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European
Languages spoken: English (official), Chichewa (official), regional dialects, i.e., Chitumbuka, Chiyao,  Chilomwe
Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 3%, other 2%.

Malaysia

Official name: Malaysia
Capital city: Kuala Lumpur
 Internet country code: .my
 Flag description: Fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rec­tangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the United States
National anthem: “Negaraku” (My Homeland)
National flower: Hibiscus
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Total area: 127,316 sq. mi. (329,749 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and
northeast (October to February) monsoons
Nationality: noun: Malaysian(s); adjective: Malaysian
Population: 24,821,286 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, other 7.8%
Languages spoken: Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai; in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages, the most widely spoken of which are Iban and Kadazan
Religions: Muslim 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%, Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chi­nese religions 2.6%, other or unknown 1.5%, none 0.8%

Maldives

Official name: Republic of Maldives
Capital city: Male
Internet country code: .mv
Flag description: Red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag
National flower: Finifenmaa (Pink rose)
National tree: Dhivehi Ruh (Coconut palm)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India
Total area: 115 sq. mi. (298 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Nationality: noun: Maldivian(s); adjective: Maldivian
Population: 369,031 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs
Languages spoken: Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most gov­ernment officials
Religions: Sunni Muslim

Mali

Official name: Republic of Mali
Capital city: Bamako
Internet country code: .ml
 Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African col­ors of Ethiopia
National anthem: “Le Mali”
National motto: “Un Peuple, un But, une Foi” (One Nation, One Goal, One Faith)
Geographical description: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Total area: 474,764 sq. mi. (1,240,278 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Nationality: noun: Malian(s); adjective: Malian
Population: 11,995,402 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Languages spoken: French (official), Bambara 80%, numer­ous African languages
Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous 6%, Christian 4%

Malta

Official name: Republic of Malta
Capital city: Valletta
Internet country code: .mt
Flag description: Two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a represen­tation of the St. George Cross, edged in red
National anthem: “L-Innu Malti” (first line in English: Guard her, O Lord, as ever Thou hast guarded!), lyrics by Dun Karm Psaila, music by Robert Samut
Geographical description: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)
Total area: 122 sq. mi. (316 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry sum­mers
Nationality: noun: Maltese (singular and plural); adjective: Maltese
Population: 401,880 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthagini­ans and Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean stock)
Languages spoken: Maltese (official), English (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 98%

Marshall Islands

Official name: Republic of the Marshall Islands
Capital city: Majuro
Internet country code: .mh
Flag description: Blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes
National anthem: “Forever Marshall Islands” by President Amata Kabua
Geographical description: Oceania, two archipelagic island chains of 29 atolls, each made up of many small islets, and five single islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Total land area: 70 sq. mi. (181 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt
Nationality: noun: Marshallese (singular and plural); adjective: Marshallese
Population: 61,815 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Marshallese 90%, American, Filipino, Chi­nese, New Zealander, Australian, other Micronesian (FSM), Kiribati, Korean, and Fijian 10%
Languages spoken: Two major Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; English
Religions: Protestant 54.8%, Assembly of God 25.8%, Roman Catholic 8.4%, Bukot nan Jesus 2.8%, Mormon 2.1%, other Christian 3.6%, other 1%, none 1.5%

Mauritania

Official name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Capital city: Nouakchott
Internet country code: .mr
Flag description: Green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
National anthem: lyrics taken from poem by Baba Ould Cheikh
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara
Total area: 419,212 sq. mi. (1,030,070 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Nationality: noun: Mauritanian(s); adjective: Mauritanian
Population: 3,270,065 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber (White Moor), Arab-Berber-Negroid (Black Moor), Haalpulaar, Soninke, Wolof (Black African Mauritanians)
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), Hassaniya (Arabic dialect), French, Pulaar, Wolof, and Soninke
Religions: Muslim 100%

Mauritius

Official name: Republic of Mauritius
Capital city: Port Louis
Internet country code: .mu
Flag description: Four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green
National anthem: “Glory to thee, Motherland” (first line), lyrics by Jean Georges Prosper, music by Philippe Gentil
National flower: Trochetia Boutoniana (Boucle d’Oreille)
Geographical description: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Total area: 720 sq. mi. (1,865 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Nationality: noun: Mauritian(s); adjective: Mauritian
Population: 1,250,882 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%
Languages spoken: Creole (common), French, English (offi­cial), Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bhojpuri
Religions: Hindu 48%, Roman Catholic 23.6%, Muslim 16.6%, other Christian 8.6%, other 2.5%, unspecified 0.3%, none 0.4%

Mexico

Official name: United Mexican States
Capital city: Mexico City
Internet country code: .mx
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band
National anthem: “Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra” (Mexi­cans, at the cry of war - first line of chorus), lyrics by Francisco González Bocanegra, music by Jaime Nunó
Geographical description: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
Total area: 761,600 sq. mi. (1,972,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical to desert
Nationality: noun: Mexican(s); adjective: Mexican
Population: 108,700,891 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Languages spoken: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.5%, Protestant 6.3% (Pente­costal 1.4%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.1%, other 3.8%), other 0.3%, unspecified 13.8%, none 3.1%

Micronesia

Official name: Federated States of Micronesia
Capital city: Palikir
Internet country code: .fm
Flag description: Light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pat­tern
National anthem: “Tis here we are pledging with heart and with hands” (first line)
Geographical description: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia
Total area: 270 sq. mi. (702 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage
Nationality: noun: Micronesian(s); adjective: Micronesian; Chuukese, Kosraen(s), Pohnpeian(s), Yapese
Population: 107,862 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap outer islands 4.5%, Asian 1.8%, Polynesian 1.5%, other 6.4%, unknown 1.4%
Languages spoken: English (official and common lan­guage), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, other 3%

Moldova

Official name: Republic of Moldova
Capital city: Chisinau (Kishinev; pronounced kee-shee­now)
Internet country code: .md
Flag description: Same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold out­lined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yel­low cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a styl­ized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
National anthem: “Limba noastr˘a-i o comoar˘a” (first line), lyrics by Alexei Mateevici, music by Alexandru Cristea
Geographical description: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Total area: 13,000 sq. mi. (33,843 sq. km.)
Climate: Moderate winters, warm summers
Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s); adjective: Moldovan
Population: 4,320,490 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3%
Languages spoken: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Ukrainian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5%

Monaco

Official name: Principality of Monaco
Capital city: Monaco
Internet country code: .mc
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red
Geographical description: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
Total area: 0.8 sq. mi. (1.95 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Nationality: noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s); adjective: Monegasque or Monacan
Population: 32,671 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Languages spoken: French (official), English, Italian, Mon­egasque
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

Mongolia

Official name: Mongolia
Capital city: Ulaanbaatar
Internet country code: .mn
Flag description: Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem (soyombo - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Geographical description: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Total area: 604,103 sq. mi. (1,566,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; continental (large daily and seasonal tem­perature ranges)
Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s); adjective: Mongolian
Population: 2,951,786 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chi­nese and Russian) 3.4%
Languages spoken: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, and Eng­lish
Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 94%, Christian, Mus­lim, Shamanism 6%

Montenegro

Official name: Republic of Montenegro
 Capital city: Podgorica
Internet country code: .me
Flag description: A red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Total area: 5,381 sq. mi. (13,938 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Nationality: noun: Montenegrin(s); adjective: Montenegrin
Population: 684,736 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 31%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Croat, Roma) 12%
Languages spoken: Serbian (official; Ijekavian dialect), Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian
Religions: Orthodox 74%, Muslim 18%, Roman Catholic 4%

Morocco

Official name: Kingdom of Morocco
Capital city: Rabat
Internet country code: .ma
Flag description: Red with a green pentacle (five-pointed linear star) known as Sulayman’s (Solomon’s) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian gulf; design dates to 1912
National anthem: “Royaume du Maroc: Garde Royale”
National motto: God, The Country, The King
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Total area: 172,413 sq. mi. (446,550 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Nationality: noun: Moroccan(s); adjective: Moroccan
Population: 33,757,175 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplo­macy
Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Mozambique

Official name: Republic of Mozambique
Capital city: Maputo
Internet country code: .mz
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bear­ing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
National anthem: “Moçambique nossa terra gloriosa!” (Mozambique, our Glorious Land - first line of chorus)
Geographical description: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tan­zania
Total area: 309,494 sq. mi. (801,590 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical to subtropical
Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s); adjective: Mozambican
Population: 20,905,585 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others) 99.66%, Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Languages spoken: Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1%

Namibia

Official name: Republic of Namibia
Capital city: Windhoek
Internet country code: .na
Flag description: A wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a yellow 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green
National anthem: “Namibia Land of the Brave”
National motto: Unity, Liberty, Justice
Geographical description: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Total area: 320,827 sq. mi. (823,145 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Nationality: noun: Namibian(s); adjective: Namibian
Population: 2,055,080 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Black 87%; white 6%; mixed race 7%. About 50% of the population belong to Ovambo ethnic group, and 9% to the Kavango ethnic group. Other ethnic groups are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San (Bushmen) 3%, Baster 2%, and Tswana 0.5%.
Languages spoken: English (official) 7%, Afrikaans com­mon language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous lan­guages (including Oshivambo, Herero, Nama) 1%
Religions: Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran 50%), indigenous religions 10% to 20%

Nauru

Official name: Republic of Nauru
Capital city: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
Internet country code: .nr
Flag description: Blue with a narrow, horizontal yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country’s location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru
National anthem: “Nauru bwiema” (Nauru Our Home­land)
Geographical description: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands
Total area: 8.1 sq. mi. (21 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)
Nationality: noun: Nauruan(s); adjective: Nauruan
Population: 13,528 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Languages spoken: Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Religions: Protestant 66.7, Roman Catholic 33.3%

Nepal

Official name: Nepal
Capital city: Kathmandu
Internet country code: .np
Flag description: Red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun
National bird: Impean Pheasant Danfe
National flower: Rhododendron Arboreum (Lali Gurans)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, between China and India
Total area: 56,136 sq. mi. (147,181 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Nationality: noun: Nepalese (singular and plural); adjective: Nepalese
Population: 28,901,790 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8%
Languages spoken: Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5%
Religions: Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9%

Netherlands

Official name: Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital city: Amsterdam
Internet country code: .nl
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; one of the oldest flags in constant use, originating with William I, Prince of Orange, in the latter half of the 16th century
National anthem: “Wilhelmus”
Geographical description: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Total area: 16,485 sq. mi. (41,526 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Nationality: noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women); adjective: Dutch
Population: 16,570,613 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Dutch 83%, other 17% (of which 9% are non-Western origin, mainly Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, Surinamese, and Indonesians)
Languages spoken: Dutch, Frisian
Religions: Roman Catholic 31%, Dutch Reformed 13%, Calvinist 7%, Muslim 5.5%, other 2.5%, none 41%

Netherlands Antilles

Official name: Netherlands Antilles
Capital city: Willemstad (on Curacao)
Internet country code: .an
Flag description: White, with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical red band, also cen­tered; five white, five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten
Geographical description: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - composed of five islands, Curacao and Bonaire located off the coast of Venezuela, and Sint Maarten, Saba, and St. Eustatius lie east of the United States Virgin Islands
Total area: 597 sq. mi. (960 sq. km.)
Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
Nationality: noun: Dutch Antillean(s); adjective: Dutch Antillean
Population: 223,652 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mixed African-Amerindian-European 85%, other 15% (includes Carib Amerindian, European, East Asian) 15%
Languages spoken: Papiamento (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) 65,4%, English 15.9%, Dutch 7.3% (official), Spanish 6.1%, Creole 1.6%, other 1.9%, unspeci­fied 1.8%
Religions: Roman Catholic 72%, Pentecostal 4.9%, Protes­tant 3.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.1%, Methodist 2.9%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.7%, other Christian 4.2%, Jewish 1.3%, other or unspecified 1.2%, none 5.2%

New Zealand

Official name: New Zealand
Capital city: Wellington
Internet country code: .nz
Flag description: Blue with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-point­ed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
National anthems: “God Defend New Zealand” and “God Save the Queen”
Geographical description: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Total area: 104,440 sq. mi. (270,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Nationality: noun: New Zealander(s); adjective: New Zealand
Population: 4,115,771 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: European 77%, Maori 14.6%, other Polyne­sian Pacific peoples 6.9%, other 1.5%
Languages spoken: English (official), Maori (official), Sign Language (official)
Religions: Anglican 14.9%, Roman Catholic 12.4%, Presby­terian 10.9%, Methodist 2.9%, Pentecostal 1.7%, Baptist 1.3%, other Christian 9.4%, other 3.3%, unspecified 17.2%, none 26%

Nicaragua

Official name: Republic of Nicaragua
Capital city: Managua
Internet country code: .ni
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms cen­tered in the white band; the coat of arms features a trian­gle encircled by the words Republica de Nicaragua on the top and America Central on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern cen­tered in the white band
Geographical description: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras
Total area: 59,998 sq. mi. (129,494 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Nationality: noun: Nicaraguan(s); adjective: Nicaraguan
Population: 5,675,356 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 69%, white 17%, black Jamaican 9%, Amerindian 5%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official) 97.5%, Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast)
Religions: Roman Catholic 72.9%, Evangelical 15.1%, Moravian 1.5%, Episcopal 0.1%, other 1.9%, none 8.5%

Niger

Official name: Republic of Niger
Capital city: Niamey
Internet country code: .ne
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (repre­senting the sun) centered in the white band
National motto: Fraternity – Work – Progress
Geographical description: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Total area: 490,000 sq. mi. (1,267,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s); adjective: Nigerien
Population: 12,894,865 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Touareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2%
Languages spoken: French (official), Hausa, Djerma, Ful­fulde, Kanuri, Tamachek, Toubou, Gourmantche, Arabic
Religions: Muslim 85%, other (includes indigenous reli­gions and Christian) 15%

Nigeria

Official name: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Capital city: Abuja
Internet country code: .ng
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
National motto: “Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress”
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Total area: 356,700 sq. mi. (923,768 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s); adjective: Nigerian
Population: 135,031,164 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Languages spoken: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous reli­gions 10%

Niue

Official name: Niue
Capital city: Alofi
Internet country code: .nu
Flag description: Yellow with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the United Kingdom bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross
Geographical description: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga
Total area: 100 sq. mi. (260 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Nationality: noun: Niuean(s); adjective: Niuean
Population: 1,492 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Niuen 78.2%, Pacific Islander 10.2%, Euro­pean 4.5%, mixed 3.9%, Asian 0.2%, unspecified 3%
Languages spoken: Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 61.1%, Latter-Day Saints 8.8%, Roman Catholic 7.2%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 2.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, other 8.4%, unspecified 8.7%, none 1.9%

Norway

Official name: Kingdom of Norway
Capital city: Oslo
Internet country code: .no
Flag description: Red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Geographical description: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Total area: 148,725 sq. mi. (385,199 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipita­tion and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Nationality: noun: Norwegian(s); adjective: Norwegian
Population: 4,627,926 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Norwegian (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic); Sami, a racial-cultural minority of 40,000; foreign nationals (415,000) from Nordic and other countries
Languages spoken: Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities
Religions: Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1%

Oman

Official name: Sultanate of Oman
Capital city: Muscat
Internet country code: .om
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scab­bards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Ara­bian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and United Arab Emirates
Total area: 119,498 sq. mi. (309,500 sq. km.)
Climate: Dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry inte­rior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Nationality: noun: Omani(s); adjective: Omani
Population: 3,204,897 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), East African
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Swahili, Hindi and Indian dialects
Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Mus­lim, Shi’a Muslim, Hindu, Christian) 25%

Pakistan

Official name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital city: Islamabad
Internet country code: .pk
Flag description: Green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
National anthem: Blessed be the sacred Land (first line in English translation), lyrics by Abdul Asar Hafeez Jul­lundhri, music by Ahmed G. Chagla
National animal: Markhor
National bird: Chakor (Red-legged partridge)
National flower: Jasmine
National poet: Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)
National tree: Deodar (Cedrus Deodara)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Total area: 310,527 sq. mi. (803,943 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s); adjective: Pakistani
Population: 164,741,924 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara
Languages spoken: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lin­gua franca of Pakistani elite and most government min­istries), Burushaski and other 8%
Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi’a 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3%

Palau

Official name: Republic of Palau
Capital city: Melekeok
Internet country code: .pw
Flag description: Light blue with a large yellow disk (rep­resenting the moon) shifted slightly to the hoist side
National anthem: “Belau Rekid” (Our Palau), composed by Ymesei O. Ezekiel
Geographical description: Oceania, group of islands in the
North Pacific Ocean, southeast of the Philippines
Total area: 190 sq. mi. (458 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November
Nationality: noun: Palauan(s); adjective: Palauan
Population: 20,842 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Palauan (Micronesian with Malayan and Melanesian admixtures) 69.9%, Filipino 15.3%, Chinese 4.9%, other Asian 2.4%, white 1.9%, Carolinian 1.4%, other Micronesian 1.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%
Languages spoken: Palauan 64.7% official in all islands except Sonsoral (Sonsoralese and English are official), Tobi (Tobi and English are official), and Angaur (Angaur, Japanese, and English are official), Filipino 13.5%, English 9.4%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%, other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5%
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.6%, Protestant 23.3%, Mod­ekngei (indigenous to Palau) 8.8%, Seventh-Day Adven­tist 5.3%, Jehovah’s Witness 0.9%, Latter-Day Saints 0.6%, other 3.1%, unspecified or none 16.4%

Panama

Official name: Republic of Panama
Capital city: Panama City
Internet country code: .pa
Flag description: Divided into four equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quad­rants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center
Geographical description: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica
Total area: 30,193 sq. mi. (78,200 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)
Nationality: noun: Panamanian(s); adjective: Panamanian
Population: 3,242,173 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed African, Amerindian, and European) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official), English 14%
Religions: Roman Catholic 84%, Protestant 15%, other 1%

Papua New Guinea

Official name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
Capital city: Port Moresby
Internet country code: .pg
Flag description: Divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered
National anthem: “O Arise All You Sons”
Geographical description: Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Total area: 178,710 sq. mi. (462,860 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight sea­sonal temperature variation
Nationality: noun: Papua New Guinean(s); adjective: Papua New Guinean
Population: 5,795,887 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Languages spoken: Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region; more than 800 indigenous languages spoken (over one-tenth of the world’s total)
Religions: Indigenous religions 34%, Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Mission­ary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%

Paraguay

Official name: Republic of Paraguay
Capital city: Asuncion
Internet country code: .py
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words Republica del Paraguay, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words Republica del Paraguay, all within two circles)
Geographical description: Central South America, north­east of Argentina
Total area: 157,047 sq. mi. (406,752 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Nationality: noun: Paraguayan(s); adjective: Paraguayan
Population: 6,669,086 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%
Languages spoken: Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant (including Mennonite and other Christian) 7.3%, other or unspeci­fied 1.9%, none 1.1%

Peru

Official name: Republic of Peru
Capital city: Lima
 Internet country code: .pe
 Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yel­low cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
National anthem: lyrics by Jose de la Torre Ugarte, music by Jose Bernardo Alcedo
Geographical description: Western South America, border­ing the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Total area: 496,225 sq. mi. (1,285,220 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s); adjective: Peruvian
Population: 28,674,757 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 37%, European 15%, African, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Languages spoken: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, and a large number of Amazonian languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3%

Philippines

Official name: Republic of the Philippines
Capital city: Manila
Internet country code: .ph
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small yellow five-pointed star representing the three major geo­graphical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897
National anthem: “Lupang Hinirang,” music from “Mar­cha Nacional Filipina” (Philippine National March) by Julian Felipe; lyrics from poem “Filipinas” by Jose Palma
National motto: “Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan At Makabansa.”
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Total area: 117,187 sq. mi. (300,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Nationality: noun: Filipino(s); adjective: Philippine
Population: 91,077,287 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3%
Languages spoken: Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
Religions: Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Chris­tian 4.5%, other (including Buddhist) 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1%

Poland

Official name: Republic of Poland
Capital city: Warsaw
Internet country code: .pl
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Mona­co which are red (top) and white
National anthem: “Mazurek Dabrowskiego” (Dombrows­ki’s Mazurka; informally known in English as “Poland Is Not Yet Lost” or “Poland Has Not Yet Perished”)
National emblem: White eagle on a red field
Geographical description: Central Europe, east of Ger­many
Total area: 120,725 sq. mi. (312,683 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Nationality: noun: Pole(s); adjective: Polish
Population: 38,518,241 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belarusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 2.7%
Languages spoken: Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2%
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.8% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other 0.3%, unspecified 8.3%

Portugal

Official name: Portuguese Republic
Capital city: Lisbon
Internet country code: .pt
Flag description: Two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
National anthem: “A Portuguesa”
Geographical description: Southwestern Europe, border­ing the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Total area: 35,672 sq. mi. (92,391 sq. km.)
Climate: Maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural); adjec­tive: 10,642,836
Population: 10,642,836 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Homogeneous Mediterranean stock with small minority groups from Africa (Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique), South America (Brazil) and Eastern Europe (Ukraine, Romania).
Languages spoken: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (offi­cial - but locally used)
Religions: Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9%

Qatar

Official name: State of Qatar
Capital city: Doha
Internet country code: .qa
Flag description: Maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side
National anthem: “Swearing by God who erected the sky” (first line in English translation)
Geographical description: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Total area: 4,427 sq. mi. (11,437 sq. km.)
Climate: Arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Nationality: noun: Qatari(s); adjective: Qatari
Population: 907,229 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Religions: Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14%

Romania

Official name: Romania
Capital city: Bucharest
Internet country code: .ro
 Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
National anthem: “Des¸teapt ˘a-te Române!” (Awaken Thee, Romanian!)
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Total area: 91,699 sq. mi. (237,499 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Nationality: noun: Romanian(s); adjective: Romanian
Population: 22,276,056 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turk­ish 0.2%, other 0.4%
Languages spoken: Romanian (official) 91%, Hungarian 6.7%, Romany 1.1%, other 1.2%
Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denomina­tions) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%,  other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1%

Russian Federation

Official name: Russian Federation
Capital city: Moscow Internet country code: .ru
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
National anthem: lyrics from poem by Sergey Mikhalkov, music by Alexander Alexandrov
National symbol: Two-headed eagle
Geographical description: Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
Total area: 6.5 million sq. mi. (17 million sq. km.)
Climate: Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; sum­mers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Nationality: noun: Russian(s); adjective: Russian
Population: 141,377,752 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1%
Languages spoken: Russian, many minority languages
Religions: Russian Orthodox, Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Protestant, Buddhist

Rwanda

Official name: Republic of Rwanda
Capital city: Kigali
Internet country code: .rw
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band
National anthem: “Rwanda Nziza”
Geographical description: Central Africa, east of Demo­cratic Republic of the Congo
Total area: 10,169 sq. mi. (26,338 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Nationality: noun: Rwandan(s); adjective: Rwandan
Population: 9,907,509 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
Languages spoken: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Religions: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adven­tist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous religions 0.1%, none 1.7%

St. Kitts and Nevis

Official name: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Capital city: Basseterre
Internet country code: .kn
Flag description: Divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing two white five-point­ed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper tri­angle is green, the lower triangle is red
National anthem: “O Land of Beauty!” (first line)
National bird: Brown pelican (Pelecanusoccidentalis)
National flower: Poinciana or flamboyant (Delonix regia)
Geographical description: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago
Total area: St. Kitts 65 sq. mi. (168 sq. km.); Nevis 36 sq. mi. (93 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Nationality: noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s); adjective: Kittit­ian, Nevisian
Population: 39,349 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Predominantly African ancestry; some British, Portuguese, and Lebanese
Languages spoken: English
Religions: Principally Anglican, with Evangelical Protes­tant and Roman Catholic minorities

St. Lucia

Official name: Saint Lucia
Capital city: Castries
Internet country code: .lc
Flag description: Blue, with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border
National anthem: “Sons and daughters of Saint Lucia love the land that gave us birth” (first line)
National bird: Saint Lucia parrot (Amazona versicolor)
National flowers: Rose and Marguerite
National motto: “The Land, The People, The Light”
Geographical description: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Total area: 238 sq. mi. (619 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August
Nationality: noun: Saint Lucian(s); adjective: Saint Lucian
Population: 170,649 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African descent 82.5%, mixed 11.9%, East Indian 2.4%, other or unspecified 3.1%
Languages spoken: English (official), French patois
Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 8.5%, Pentecostal 5.7%, Rastafarian 2.1%, Anglican 2%, Evangelical 2%, other Christian 5.1%, other 1.1%, unspeci­fied 1.5%, none 4.5%

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Official name: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Capital city: Kingstown
Internet country code: .vc
Flag description: Three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern
National anthem: “Saint Vincent, Land so beautiful” (first line)
Geographical description: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Total area: 130 sq. mi. (340 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Nationality: noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s); adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian
Population: 118,149 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African descent 66%, mixed 19%, East Indian 6%, Carib Amerindian 2%, other 7%
Languages spoken: English, French patois
Religions: Anglican 47%, Methodist 28%, Roman Catholic 13%, other (includes Hindu, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Protestant) 12%

Samoa

Official name: Independent State of Samoa
Capital city: Apia
Internet country code: .ws
Flag description: Red with a blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation
National anthem: “O le Fua o le Saolotoga o Samoa” (The Banner of Freedom), lyrics and music by Sauni I. Kuresa
National motto: “Faavae i le Atua Samoa” (God Be the Foundation of Samoa)
Geographical description: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Total area: 1,133 sq. mi. (2,934 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)
Nationality: noun: Samoan(s); adjective: Samoan
Population: 214,265 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians (mixed European and Polynesian) 7%, Europeans 0.4%
Languages spoken: Samoan (Polynesian), English
Religions: Congregationalist 34.8%, Roman Catholic 19.6%, Methodist 15%, Latter-Day Saints 12.7%, Assembly of God 6.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.5%, Worship Centre 1.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.9%, unspecified 0.1%

San Marino

Official name: Republic of San Marino
Capital city: San Marino
Internet country code: .sm
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms super­imposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (fea­turing three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word Liber­tas (Liberty)
National anthem: written by Federico Consolo (score only)
Geographical description: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Total area: 23.6 sq. mi. (61.2 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural); adjective: Sammarinese
Population: 29,615 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian
Languages spoken: Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic

São Tomé and Príncipe

Official name: Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Capital city: São Tomé
Internet country code: .st
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yel­low band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Geographical description: Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Total area: 386 sq. mi. (1,001 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Nationality: noun: Sao Tomean (s); adjective: Sao Tomean
Population: 199,579 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: mestico (mixed African Europeanz), ango­lares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servi­cais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Por­tuguese)
Languages spoken: Portuguese (official)
Religions: Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apos­tolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4%

Saudi Arabia

Official name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital city: Riyadh
Internet country code: .sa
Flag description: Green, a traditional color in Islamic flags, with the Shahada or Muslim creed in large white Arabic script (translated as “There is no god but God; Muham­mad is the Messenger of God”) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); design dates to the early 20th century and is closely associated with the Al Saud family which established the kingdom in 1932
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Per­sian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen
Total area: 784,233 sq. mi. (1,960,582 sq. km.)
Climate: Harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
Nationality: noun: Saudi(s); adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabi­an
Population: 27,601,038 (includes 5,576,076 non-nationals; July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Languages spoken: Arabic
Religions: Muslim 100%

Senegal

Official name: Republic of Senegal
Capital city: Dakar
Internet country code: .sn
Flag description: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauri­tania
Total area: 76,000 sq. mi. (196,840 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural); adjective: Senegalese
Population: 12,521,851 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Languages spoken: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Serer, Diola, Mandingo, Soninke
Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) 5%, indigenous religions 1%

Serbia

Official name: Republic of Serbia
Capital city: Belgrade
Internet country code: .rs
Flag description: Three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side
National anthem: “Boze Pravde” (God of Justice), music by Davorin Jenko and lyrics by Jovan Djordjevic
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Total area: 34,116 sq. mi. (88,361 sq. km.)
Climate: In the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (rela­tively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Nationality: noun: Serb(s); adjective: Serbian
Population: 10,150,265 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8%
Languages spoken: Serbian (official) 88.3%, Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9%
Religions: Serbian Orthodox 85%, Roman Catholic 5.5%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or athe­ist 2.6%, Protestant 1.1%

Seychelles

Official name: Republic of Seychelles
Capital city: Victoria
Internet country code: .sc
Flag description: Five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side
Geographical description: archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Total area: 176 sq. mi. (455 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer sea­son during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Nationality: noun: Seychellois (singular and plural); adjec­tive: Seychellois
Population: 81,895 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
Languages spoken: Creole 91.8%, English 4.9%, other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2%
Religions: Roman Catholic 82.3%, Anglican 6.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.1%, other Christian 3.4%, Hindu 2.1%, Muslim 1.1%, other non-Christian 1.5%, unspecified 1.5%, none 0.6%

Sierra Leone

Official name: Republic of Sierra Leone
Capital city: Freetown
Internet country code: .sl
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia
Total area: 29,925 sq. mi. (71,740 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)
Nationality: noun: Sierra Leonean(s); adjective: Sierra Leonean
Population: 6,144,562 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: 20 African ethnic groups 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia’s recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians
Languages spoken: English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%), and several other indigenous languages
Religions: Muslim 60%, Christian and indigenous religions 40%

Singapore

Official name: Republic of Singapore
Capital city: Singapore
Internet country code: .sg
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
National anthem: “Majulah Singapura” (Onward Singa­pore)
National flower: Vanda Miss Joaquim orchid
National symbol: Lion head
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Total area: 271 sq. mi. (704 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunder­storms
Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s); adjective: Singapore
Population: 4,553,009 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%
Languages spoken: Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9%
Religions: Buddhist 42.5%, Muslim 14.9%, Taoist 8.5%, Hindu 4%, Catholic 4.8%, other Christian 9.8%, other 0.7%, none 14.8%

Slovakia

Official name: Slovak Republic
Capital city: Bratislava
Internet country code: .sk
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the coat of arms of Slovakia (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills); the coat of arms is centered vertically and off­set slightly to the hoist side
National anthem: “Nad Tatrou sa blyska”
Geographical description: Central Europe, south of Poland
Total area: 18,859 sq. mi. (48,845 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Nationality: noun: Slovak(s); adjective: Slovak
Population: 5,447,502 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8%
Languages spoken: Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Romany 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6%
Religions: Roman Catholic 69%, Protestant 9%, Greek Catholic 4%, Orthodox 0.9%, other 0.6%, unknown 3.5%, none 13%

Slovenia

Official name: Republic of Slovenia
Capital city: Ljubljana
Internet country code: .si
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia’s highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted trian­gle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
National anthem: the seventh stanza of France Preseren’s poem “Zdravljica” (A Toast), music by Stanko Premrl
Geographical description: Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Total area: 7,906 sq. mi. (20,273 sq. km.)
Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Nationality: noun: Slovene(s); adjective: Slovenian
Population: 2,009,245 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosni­ak 1.1%, other (including Hungarian, Montenegrin, Mace­donian, Albanian, Italian, Roma) or unspecified 12%
Languages spoken: Slovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croat­ian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%; Hungarian and Ital­ian are spoken in the border regions, and German fluency is common near the Austrian border. Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian are spoken by a sizable (6% of the popula­tion) minority. English is widely understood by business people and students.
Religions: Roman Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1%

Solomon Islands

Official name: Solomon Islands
Capital city: Honiara
Internet country code: .sb
Flag description: Divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green
Geographical description: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea
Total area: 11,599 sq. mi. (27,556 sq. km.); archipelago: 280,000 sq. mi. (725,197 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather
Nationality: noun: Solomon Islander(s); adjective: Solomon Islander
Population: 566,842 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Microne­sian 1.5%, other 1.5%
Languages spoken: Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca; English is official, but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population; 120 indigenous languages
Religions: Anglican Church of Melanesia 32.8%, Roman Catholic 19%, South Seas Evangelical 17%, Seventh-Day Adventist 11.2%, United Church (Methodist) 10.3%, Christian Fellowship Church 2.4%, other Christian 4.4%, other 2.4%, unspecified 0.3%, none 0.2%

Somalia

Official name: Somalia
Capital city: Mogadishu
Internet country code: .so
Flag description: Light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; blue field influenced by the flag of the United Nations
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Total area: 246,199 sq. mi. (637,657 sq. km.)
Climate: Principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Nationality: noun: Somali(s); adjective: Somali
Population: 9,118,773 (this July 2007 CIA estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan war­fare)
Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
Languages spoken: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, Eng­lish
Religions: Sunni Muslim 99.9%

South Africa

Official name: Republic of South Africa
Capital city: Pretoria
Internet country code: .za
Flag description: Two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes
National anthem: A combination of “Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfri­ka” by Enoch Sontonga and “The Call of South Africa” (Die Stem van Suid-Afrika), lyrics by C. J. Langenhoven, music by M. L. de Villiers
National animal: Springbuck/springbok (Antidorcas mar­supialis)
National bird: Blue crane (Anthropoides paradisia)
National fish: Galjoen (Coracinus capensis)
National flower: King Protea (Protea cynaroides)
National tree: Real yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius)
Geographical description: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Total area: 470,462 sq. mi. (1,219,912 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
Nationality: noun: South African(s); adjective: South African
Population: 43,997,828 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Black African 79%, white 9.6%, colored 8.9%, Indian/Asian 2.5%
Languages spoken: IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, isiNdebele—all offi­cial; other (including siSwati and Tshivenda) 7.2%
Religions: Zion Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, Muslim 1.5%, other Chris­tian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1%

Spain

Official name: Kingdom of Spain
Capital city: Madrid
Internet country code: .es
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Her­cules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar
National anthem: “Grenadier March” or “Royal Spanish March”
Geographical description: Southwestern Europe, border­ing the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France
Total area: 194,884 sq. mi. (504,750 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Nationality: noun: Spaniard(s); adjective: Spanish
Population: 40,448,191 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Composite of Mediterranean and Nordic groups; distinct ethnic groups within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, and Galicians
Languages spoken: Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Cata­lan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2% are official regional­ly
Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, other (including Protes­tant and Muslim) 6%

Sri Lanka

Official name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Capital city: Colombo
Internet country code: .lk
Flag description: Yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels
National anthem: “Sri Lanka Matha”
National flower: Blue Water Lily (Nymphaea stellata)
Geographical description: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India
Total area: 25,332 sq. mi. (65,610 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
Nationality: noun: Sri Lankan(s); adjective: Sri Lankan
Population: 20,926,315 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Burgher (descen­dants of Dutch and Portuguese colonist) and others 8%
Languages spoken: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8% (English is commonly used in government and is spoken competent­ly by about 10% of the population)
Religions: Buddhist 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10%

Sudan

Official name: Republic of the Sudan
Capital city: Khartoum
Internet country code: .sd
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Total area: 967,500 sq. mi. (2,505,810 sq. km.)
Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy sea­son varies by region (April to November)
Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural); adjective: Sudanese
Population: 39,379,358 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic lan­guages, English
Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), indigenous religions 25%

Suriname

Official name: Republic of Suriname
Capital city: Paramaribo
Internet country code: .sr
Flag description: Five horizontal bands of green (top, dou­ble width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large, yellow, five-pointed star centered in the red band
National anthem: “Rise country men rise” (first line)
National flower: Fajalobi (“passionate love”; orchid)
National motto: Justitia – Pietas – Fides (Justice-Faith-Loy­alty)
Geographical description: Northern South America, bor­dering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana
Total area: 63,037 sq. mi. (163,194 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; moderated by trade winds
Nationality: noun: Surinamer(s); adjective: Surinamese
Population: 470,784 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Hindustani (also known locally as “East Indians”; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15%, “Maroons” (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10%, Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%
Languages spoken: Dutch (official), English (widely spo­ken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Protestant 25.2% (predominantly Moravian), Roman Catholic 22.8%, Muslim 19.6%, indige­nous religions 5%

Swaziland

Official name: Kingdom of Swaziland
Capital city: Mbabane
Internet country code: .sz
Flag description: Three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally
Geographical description: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Total area: 6,704 sq. mi. (17,363 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical to near temperate
Nationality: noun: Swazi(s); adjective: Swazi
Population: 1,133,066 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African, overwhelmingly Swazi 97%, Euro­pean 3%
Languages spoken: English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Religions: Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indige­nous ancestral worship), Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, other (includes Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mor­mon, Jewish) 30%

Sweden

Official name: Kingdom of Sweden
Capital city: Stockholm
Internet country code: .se
Flag description: Blue with a golden yellow cross extend­ing to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
National anthem: “Du gamla, Du fria” (Thou ancient, Thou freeborn)
Geographical description: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Total area: 173,731 sq. mi. (449,964 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Nationality: noun: Swede(s); adjective: Swedish
Population: 9,031,088 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-genera­tion immigrants include Finns, Iraqis, former Yugoslav nationals, Iranians, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Languages spoken: Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Religions: Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%

Switzerland

Official name: Swiss Confederation
Capital city: Bern
Internet country code: .ch
Flag description: Red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag
National anthem: “Schweizerpsalm” (Swiss Psalm)
Geographical description: Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy
Total area: 15,941 sq. mi. (41,285 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid sum­mers with occasional showers
Nationality: noun: Swiss (singular and plural); adjective: Swiss
Population: 7,554,661 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%
Languages spoken: German (official) 63.7%, French (offi­cial) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, Romansch (official) 0.5%, other 2.8%
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.8%, Protestant 35.3%, Mus­lim 4.3%, Orthodox 1.8%, other Christian 0.4%, other 1%, unspecified 4.3%, none 11.1%

Syria

Official name: Syrian Arab Republic
Capital city: Damascus
Internet country code: .sy
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black, colors associated with the Arab Libera­tion flag; two small green five-pointed stars in a horizon­tal line centered in the white band; former flag of the United Arab Republic where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band, Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a hor­izontal line centered in the white band, and that of Egypt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band; the current design dates to 1980
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey
Total area: 71,504 sq. mi. (185,170 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus
Nationality: noun: Syrian(s); adjective: Syrian
Population: 19,314,747 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds 9%, Armenians, Circas­sians, Turkomans 0.7%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Religions: Sunni Muslims 74%, Alawis 12%, Christians 10%, Druze 3%, and small numbers of other Muslim sects, Jews, and Yazidis

Taiwan

Official name: Taiwan
Capital city: Taipei
Internet country code: .tw
Flag description: Red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 trian­gular rays
National flower: Plum blossom (prunus mei)
Geographical description: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeast­ern coast of China
Total area: 13,887 sq. mi. (35,967 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
Nationality: noun: Taiwan(s); adjective: Taiwan
Population: 22,858,872 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, indigenous 2%
Languages spoken: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Religions: mixture of Buddhist and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%

Tajikistan

Official name: Republic of Tajikistan
Capital city: Dushanbe
Internet country code: .tj
Flag description: Three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmount­ed by seven gold five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
Geographical description: Central Asia, west of China
Total area: 55,251 sq. mi. (143,100 sq. km.)
Climate: Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s); adjective: Tajikistani
Population: 7,076,598 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6%
Languages spoken: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi’a Muslim 5%, other 10%

Tanzania

Official name: United Republic of Tanzania
Capital city: Dar es Salaam
Internet country code: .tz
Flag description: Divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
National anthem: “Wimbo Wa Taifa” (God Bless Africa)
National motto: “Uhuru na Umoja” (Freedom and Unity)
National symbol: Uhuru Torch
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Total area: 378,000 sq. mi. (945,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s), Zanzibari(s); adjective: Tan­zanian, Zanzibari
Population: 39,384,223 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (con­sisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Languages spoken: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiungu­ja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, pri­mary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
Religions: mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indige­nous religions 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim

Thailand

Official name: Kingdom of Thailand
Capital city: Bangkok
Internet country code: .th
Flag description: Five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red
National animal: Elephant
National architecture: Sala Thai (Thai Pavilion)
National flower: Ratchaphruek (Cassia fistula Linn)
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
Total area: 198,114 sq. mi. (513,115 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Nationality: noun: Thai (singular and plural); adjective: Thai
Population: 65,068,149 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
Languages spoken: Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Religions: Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other (including Hindu, Brahmin) 0.1%

Timor-Leste

Official name: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (for­merly East Timor)
Capital city: Dili
Internet country code: .tl
Flag description: Red, with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; there is a white star in the center of the black triangle
National anthem: “Pátria” (Fatherland), lyrics by Francisco Borja da Costa, music by Afonso de Araújo
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - Timor-Leste includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Total area: 5,794 sq. mi. (15,007 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry sea­sons
Nationality: noun: Timorese (singular and plural); adjective: Timorese
Population: 1,084,971 (July 2007 CIA est.; note: other esti­mates range as low as 800,000)
Ethnic groups: Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese minority
Languages spoken: Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English; there are about 16 indigenous lan­guages, including Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak, which are spoken by significant numbers of people
Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, Muslim 1%, Protestant 1%

Togo

Official name: Togolese Republic
Capital city: Lomé
Internet country code: .tg
Flag description: Five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side cor­ner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Geographical description: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Total area: 21,924 sq. mi. (56,785 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Nationality: noun: Togolese (singular and plural); adjective: Togolese
Population: 5,701,579 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African (37 tribes; most prominent are Ewe, Mina, Kabye, Cotocoli, Moba) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Languages spoken: French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African lan­guages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Religions: Christianity, Islam, indigenous religions

Tonga

Official name: Kingdom of Tonga
Capital city: Nuku’alofa
Internet country code: .to
Flag description: Red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
Geographical description: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Total area: 288 sq. mi. (747 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Nationality: noun: Tongan(s); adjective: Tongan
Population: 116,921 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Tongan 98%, other Polynesian, European
Languages spoken: Tongan, English
Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)

Trinidad and Tobago

Official name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Capital city: Port-of-Spain
Internet country code: .tt
Flag description: Red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side
National anthem: “Forged from the love of liberty” (first line) by Patrick S. Castagne
National birds: Scarlet Ibis (Tantalus Ruber) and Cocrico (Rufus Tailed Guan)
National flower: Chaconia, called “Wild Poinsettia” or “Pride of Trinidad and Tobago” (of the family Rubianceae)
National motto: “Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve”
National watchwords: Discipline, Production, Tolerance
Geographical description: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Total area: 1,980 sq. mi. (5,128 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Nationality: noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Population: 1,056,608 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, European 0.6%, Chinese 0.3%, other or unspecified 1.1%, unspecified 0.8%
Languages spoken: English (official), Caribbean Hindus­tani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Religions: Roman Catholic 26%, Hindu 22.5%, Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Muslim 5.8%, Sev­enth-Day Adventist 4%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9%

Tunisia

Official name: Tunisian Republic
Capital city: Tunis
Internet country code: .tn
Flag description: Red with a white disk in the center bear­ing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
Geographical description: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Total area: 63,378 sq. mi. (163,610 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Nationality: noun: Tunisian(s); adjective: Tunisian
Population: 10,276,158 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, other 1%
Languages spoken: Arabic (official and one of the lan­guages of commerce), French (commerce)
Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Turkey

Official name: Republic of Turkey
Capital city: Ankara
Internet country code: .tr
Flag description: Red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
National anthem: “Istiklal Marsi” (The Independence March)
Geographical description: Southeastern Europe and south­western Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Total area: 314,500 sq. mi. (814,578 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Nationality: noun: Turk(s); adjective: Turkish
Population: 71,158,647 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Languages spoken: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian, Arabic, Armenian, Greek (note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the Euro­pean part of Turkey)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other (mostly Christians, Jews, and Baha’i) 0.2%

Turkmenistan

Official name: Turkmenistan
Capital city: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Internet country code: .tm
Flag description: Green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the United Nations flag; a white crescent moon representing Islam with five white stars representing the regions or velayats of Turkmenistan appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe
National anthem: “The great creation of Turkmenbashy” (first line in English translation)
Geographical description: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Total area: 303,292 sq. mi. (488,100 sq. km.)
Climate: Subtropical desert
Nationality: noun: Turkmen(s); adjective: Turkmenistani
Population: 5,097,028 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6%
Languages spoken: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Tuvalu

Official name: Tuvalu
Capital city: Funafuti
Internet country code: .tv
Flag description: Light blue with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yel­low five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands
Geographical description: Oceania, island group consist­ing of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Total area: 10 sq. mi. (26 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Nationality: noun: Tuvaluan(s); adjective: Tuvaluan
Population: 11,992 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4%
Languages spoken: Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Sev­enth-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha’i 1%, other 0.6%

Uganda

Official name: Republic of Uganda
Capital city: Kampala
Internet country code: .ug
Flag description: Six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is super­imposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side
National anthem: “Oh, Uganda! may God uphold thee”
National bird: Crested crane (Regulorum gibbericeps)
National motto: “For God and My Country”
Geographical description: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Total area: 93,070 sq. mi. (241,040 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in
northeast
Nationality: noun: Ugandan(s); adjective: Ugandan
Population: 30,262,610 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 99% (including Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bun­yoro 2.7%, other African), European, Asian, Arab 1%
Languages spoken: English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo lan­guages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Angli­can 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9%

Ukraine

Official name: Ukraine
Capital city: Kyiv (Kiev)
 Internet country code: .ua
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
National anthem: “Sche ne vmerla Ukrainy i slava i volya” (first line in English translation: The glory and fame of Ukraine are still alive), lyrics by Pavlo Chubynsky, music by Mykhailo Verbytsky
Geographical description: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Total area: 233,000 sq. mi. (603,700 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Nationality: noun: Ukrainian(s); adjective: Ukrainian
Population: 46,299,862 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jew­ish 0.2%, other 1.8%
Languages spoken: Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, other 9% (includes small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hun­garian-speaking minorities)
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 19%, Orthodox (no particular jurisdiction) 16%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%, Protestant, Jewish, none 38%

United Arab Emirates

Official name: United Arab Emirates
Capital city: Abu Dhabi
Internet country code: .ae
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a wider vertical red band on the hoist side
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Total area: 30,000 sq. mi. (82,880 sq. km.)
Climate: Desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Nationality: noun: Emirati(s); adjective: Emirati
Population: 4,444,011 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Egyptian, Jordanian, Iranian, Filipino, other Arab; only 15-20% of
residents are U.A.E. citizens)
Languages spoken: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
Religions: Muslim 96% (Shi’a 16%), other (includes Chris­tian, Hindu) 4%

United Kingdom

Official name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (note - Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales)
Capital city: London
Internet country code: .uk
Flag description: Blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superim­posed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their con­stituent states or provinces, and British overseas territo­ries
National anthem: “God Save the Queen”
Geographical description: Western Europe, islands includ­ing the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France
Total area: 93,000 sq. mi. (243,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than onehalf of the days are overcast
Nationality: noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural); adjective: British
Population: 60,776,238 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: English 83.6%, Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%, African 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%
Languages spoken: English, Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic
Religions: Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyte­rian, Methodist) 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified or none 23.1%

United States

Official name: United States of America
Capital city: Washington, D.C.
Internet country code: .us
Flag description: Thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
National anthem: “The Star-Spangled Banner”
National bird: Bald eagle
National mottoes: E pluribus unum (Out of Many, One) and “In God We Trust”
Geographical description: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Total area: 3,794,062 sq. mi. (9,826,630 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the Great Plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Nationality: noun: American(s); adjective: American
Population: 301,139,947 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: European 81.7%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2% (note: a separate listing for His­panic is not included because the United States Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent, including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin, living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group - white, black, Asian, etc.)
Languages spoken: English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7%
Religions: Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10%, none 10%

Uruguay

Official name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
Capital city: Montevideo
Internet country code: .uy
Flag description: Nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy
Geographical description: Southern South America, bor­dering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Total area: 68,000 sq. mi. (176,000 sq. km.)
Climate: Warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Nationality: noun: Uruguayan(s); adjective: Uruguayan
Population: 3,460,607 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: European 88%, mestizo 8%, African 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
Languages spoken: Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Por­tuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Religions: Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jew­ish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%

Uzbekistan

Official name: Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital city: Tashkent (Toshkent)
Internet country code: .uz
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
National anthem: lyrics from poem by A. Aripov, music by M. Burkhanov
Geographical description: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Total area: 172,741 sq. mi. (447,400 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani(s); adjective: Uzbekistani
Population: 27,780,059 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Languages spoken: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunnis) 88%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Vanuatu

Official name: Republic of Vanuatu
Capital city: Port-Vila (on Efate)
Internet country code: .vu
Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the tri­angle is a boar’s tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow
Geographical description: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Total area: 4,707 sq. mi. (12,190 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds from May to October; moderate rainfall from November to April; may be affected by cyclones from December to April
Nationality: noun: Ni-Vanuatu(s); adjective: Ni-Vanuatu
Population: 211,971 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Ni-Vanuatu 94%, European 4%, other Pacif­ic Islanders, Asian 2%
Languages spoken: local languages (more than 100) 72.6%, pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama) 23.1%, English 1.9%, French 1.4%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.7%
Religions: Presbyterian 31.4%, Anglican 13.4%, Roman Catholic 13.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, other Christian 13.8%, indigenous beliefs 5.6% (including Jon Frum cargo cult), other 9.6%, none 1%, unspecified 1.3%

Venezuela

Official name: Bolivarian Republic ofVenezuela Capital city: Caracas Internet country code: .ve Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of yellow
(top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band
National anthem: “Gloria al Bravo Pueblo”
National flower: Orchid
National tree: Araguaney
National bird: Turpial
Geographical description: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana
Total area: 352,143 sq. mi. (912,050 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Nationality: noun: Venezuelan(s); adjective: Venezuelan
Population: 26,023,528 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous Amerindian
Languages spoken: Spanish (official), numerous indige­nous dialects
Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%

Vietnam

Official name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam Capital city: Hanoi Internet country code: .vn
Flag description: Red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center
National anthem: “Tiˆe´n quân ca” (The Song of the March­ing Troops) by V˘an Cao
Geographical description: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
Total area: 127,243 sq. mi. (331,114 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Nationality: noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural); adjective: Vietnamese
Population: 85,262,356 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1%
Languages spoken: Vietnamese (official), English (increas­ingly favored as a second language), some French, Chi­nese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Religions: Buddhist 9.3%, Roman Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8%

Yemen

Official name: Republic of Yemen
Capital city: Sanaa
Internet country code: .ye
Flag description: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Ara­bian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Total area: 203,796 sq. mi. (527,970 sq. km.)
Climate: Mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Nationality: noun: Yemeni(s); adjective: Yemeni
Population: 22,230,531 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: Predominantly Arab, but also Afro-Arabs, South Asians, Europeans
Languages spoken: Arabic
Religions: Muslim including Shaf’i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi’a), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Zambia

Official name: Republic of Zambia
Capital city: Lusaka
Internet country code: .zm
Flag description: Green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soar­ing orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag
Geographical description: Southern Africa, east of Angola
Total area: 290,585 sq. mi. (752,614 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (Octo­ber to April)
Nationality: noun: Zambian(s); adjective: Zambian
Population: 11,477,447 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African (more than 70 groups) 98.7%, Euro­pean 1.1%, other 0.2%
Languages spoken: English (official), major vernaculars include Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%­49%, indigenous religions 1%

Zimbabwe

Official name: Republic of Zimbabwe
Capital city: Harare
Internet country code: .zw
Flag description: Seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long histo­ry of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green symbolizes agriculture, yellow represents mineral wealth, red symbolizes blood shed to achieve independ­ence, and black stands for the native people
Geographical description: Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Total area: 150,760 sq. mi. (390,580 sq. km.)
Climate: Tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Nationality: noun: Zimbabwean(s); adjective: Zimbabwean
Population: 12,311,143 (July 2007 CIA est.)
Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Languages spoken: English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
Religions: Syncretic Christian and indigenous religions 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous religions 24%, Muslim and other 1%
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