in NOMax have been shown to activate AMPK and can stimulate glucose uptake.
Citrus fruits contain flavanones
and phenols that help neutralize free radicals and strengthen cellular defenses.
Tests were performed for the detection of phenols, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, catechins, anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, triterpenoids, flavanones
, saponins, alkaloids, and tannins.
Oranges provided most of the flavanones
, and apples supplied dihydrochalcones.
rufogrisea Chemical class Alkaloids - Phenolic compounds Anthraquinones + Coumarins + Tannins + Xanthones + Flavonoids Aurones - Catechins--Catechin + tannins Flavonoids Chalcones - Flavonols + Flavanones
+ Terpenoids and steroids Saponins + Alpha, beta-unsaturated lactones + Steroid nuclei + 2-deoxy sugars + The signs (+) and (-) indicate, respectively, the presence or absence of the chemical classes in the analyzed plant material.
These UV-protection benefits are believed to be due to the abundant anthocyanins, flavanones
, and hydroxycinnamic acids found in red orange extract.
2008a) isolated five flavanones
and three chalcones from C.
Over 9,000 flavonoids have been identified and categorized according to chemical structure into nine leading subgroups as chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavanones
, flavanediols, anthocyanins, isoflavones, aurones and tannins (Fig.
The major and the largest class of polyphenols are flavonoids, among which there are 6 different subclasses: flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, flavanones
, anthocyanins, and isoflavones .
Bioavailability in humans of the flavanones
hesperidin and narirutin after the ingestion of two doses of orange juice.
extracted from the bergamot peel, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutary
Citrus fruits contain large amounts of antioxidants, a class of which are called flavanones