They were divided into two groups: the Cisalpinists, who, like the supporters of French Gallicanism
and Austrian Josephinism, promoted the idea of the independence of the national churches, and the Transalpinists, who defended papal infallibility and stressed clerical authority over the laity.
In her essay on Unigenitus (1713), the papal bull that condemned 101 propositions taken from the Jansenist theologian Pasquier Quesnel (1634-1719), Maire maintains that Jansenism was condemned on account of its association with Gallicanism
See Gauvreau, The Catholic Origins of Quebec's Quiet Revolution, 1931-1970 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005), 9-12, 23; Terence Fay, A History of Canadian Catholics: Gallicanism
, Romanism and Canadianism (Montreal and Kingston: McGill- Queen's University Press, 2002), 202-208, 238-239; Gregory Baum, Catholics and Canadian Socialism: Political Thought in the Thirties and Forties (Toronto: J.
, Erastianism, and related Conciliarist movements are also representative of this trend.
Among the other essays is one by Therese-Marie Jallais, who discovered the Wansleben manuscript, which takes up the affinities between Harrington's republicanism and other movements, such as Jansenism and Gallicanism
Looking at the development of political thought against the backdrop of Gallicanism
leads Perreau-Saussine to a number of surprising and compelling conclusions.
As the ofspring of Renaissance liberalism, Gallicanism
upheld French sovereignty against papal interventions into domestic political and religious affairs.
This view gained momentum during controversies of the Reformation and continued through the struggles against Gallicanism
Sorkin helpfully draws out the links between natural law theory in Gallicanism
and in German Protestantism and the efforts of Eybel under Maria Theresa and Joseph II.
The shift from Gallicanism
to Ultramontanism during the nineteenth century may partly result from the demise of the French monarchy.
The data show that of twenty-three missions, ten could be considered as more focused on the spiritual role of the Pope, since they had a direct impact on French religion: these concerned Gallicanism
, the request for a cardinalship for a specific clergyman (and concerns about the possible appointment of an undesirable candidate for a cardinalship), the election of a Pope, discussions of bulls, and Jansenism.
Along with this trend came an importation of Gallicanism
in the sense that Spanish government ministers and clerics borrowed the rhetoric and were encouraged by the progress of French Catholics who argued against direct Roman authority in the administrative affairs of the French church in the name of traditional liberties French kings and bishops had exercised in previous centuries.