It might be asked why--since we know one Celtic language, Irish, in some detail from the eighth century, and two Brittonic dialects, Old Breton and Old Welsh, less completely from a similar date--we cannot yet offer dependable translations of the major Gaulish
It is dominated by East Gaulish
wares of 225-250 and includes some of the latest samian known in Britain.
Next, Knight: shows how changing economic circumstances went hand-in-hand with social and political change, with Gaulish
aristocrats moving away from ancestral estates and taking their places in the palaces of bishops or kings.
Growing away from Napoleon III's original plan of a museum dedicated to Gaulish
, Roman, Phoenician and Greek antiquities, the MAN granted, under the influence of Mortillet, considerable space to prehistory, presented as a specific field of archaeological study.
Imports included some amphora sherds of Gaulish
origin; and some colour-coated wares.
For instance, beer was sold in the German and Gaulish
houses (Ammann 1889: supp.
It was a native Gaulish
tomb that was at the same time a funeral grotto representing an Entrance to the Underworld which symbolised Return to the Womb of the Creatrix.
This is not trivial criticism, because bilingualism is the prerequisite for language-shift, a phenomenon which has occurred on a massive scale not only in modern times, for example in Ireland, but also in antiquity, for example in France where Aquitanian, Gaulish
and Frankish were all replaced by the form of Latin which became French.
I am certainly puzzled by the diagram in which 'some English archaeologists' are apparently denying both Celtic and even Gaulish
identity to Vercingetorix (Megaw & Megaw 1996: [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]).
An unequivocally dual-gendered animal-figurine, of Roman date, is recorded from Cahors (Lot) in France [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 5 OMITTED]: a snarling wild boar, its mouth open to reveal jutting tusks, has a coarse pelt and dorsal crest raised in aggression (like many Gaulish
boar-figures), but below its belly is a row of swollen, sow-like teats (Dayet 1954: 334-5; Green 1992: figure 8.
Thus, it was that a Gaulish
army of 250,000 could advance on Rome during the period of Marius at a steady pace of what the average member could cover on foot in a given day.
It is the renowned Gaulish
chieftain of the successful browser game Travian 4.