The primary drama of the poem is centered in the consciousness of the speaker rather than in externalized actions, as in the classical genres, and it continues an already developed tradition of epics of the 1790s that reject a masculinist militarism as integral to a definition of national identity, such as Landor's Gebir
and Barlow's Columbiad (Kelly 40-43; Curran 168-70), but it shares with the romance a limited scope of events, an overtly Christian ideology, and an idealized, Christianized concept of self-realization.
Many of their works--such as Sophia Lee's Almeyda, Queen of Granada (1796), a tragedy set in Moorish Spain, Coleridge's fellow pantisocrat Southey's Letters Written during a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal (1797), which was a result of his visit to those countries immediately following the failure of their jointly planned Pantisocracy, and Landor's oriental Gebir
(1798), which was an attack on the Spanish prince Gebir
's invasion and colonization of Egypt--came about the same time as Kubla Khan was being written.
First in his narrative poem Gebir (1798) and then in an intriguing small collection, published in May of 1800 under the title of Poems from the Arabic and Persian; with Notes by the Author of 'Gebir'.
When he first saw an announcement of Landor's Poems from the Arabic and Persian; with Notes by the Author of 'Gebir', it was with more astuteness than he intended (given the cultural arrogance implicit in his question) that Robert Southey wondered "Can there possibly be Arabic and Persian poetry which the author of Gebir may be excused for translating?
They also saw the publication of Robert Southey's anti-war epic Joan of Arc (1796), two attempts to extend Milton's Paradise Regained in the form of Richard Cumberland's Calvary (179Z) and James Ogden's Emmanuel (1797), George Skene's short epic Donald Bane (1796), and three oriental epics: Lady Sophia Burrell's Thymbriad (1794), Walter Savage Landor's Gebir
(1798), and Robert Southey's Thalaba (1801).
21) The untitled lines were published in Simonidea (1806) and reprinted with revisions in Gebir
, Count Julian, and Other Poems (1831)--see The Poetical Works of Walter Savage Landor, ed.
From his eminence of years Walter Savage Landor, who had published the very different epic experiment Gebir
(1798) at about Bailey's age when the first version of Festus came out in 1839, addressed some rhymed advice to his young successor in brash innovation.
Gabriel Woolf's fascinating and well-researched programme on the English eccentric Walter Savage Landor resurrected a poet whose fame rests mainly today on his obscure poem Gebir
-an Arabian Nights fantasy much admired by Shelley.
Cronin's own essay focuses on 1798 as the year of the Anti-Jacobin, and reads Landor's Jacobin poem, Gebir
, as a doomed attempt to prolong a radical epic tradition whose visions were undermined by the chosen vehicle, the heroic mode readily seduced by the Napoleonic model of power and mastery.
Among his works are Gebir
(1797), an Oriental tale in blank verse; Imaginary Conversations (1824 - 53), a series of discussions between historical figures on a variety of subjects; and " Rose Aylmer, " his best - known lyric.
ONE OF THE MOST SUBVERSIVE MOMENTS IN WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR'S Gebir
occurs in book six when Tamar, a poor shepherd and Gebir
's brother, falls madly in love with an Egyptian nymph who takes him on a magical flight over Europe.
Thus, he shows how the two French campaigns in Switzerland, in 1798 and 1802, were retrospectively coalesced to put back conveniently the date of disenchantment with Napoleon, and how Gebir
(which praised Bonaparte's campaign in Italy through cunningly occluded allegory) was overtaken by the campaign in Egypt.