Studies have supported the fact that due to the presence of insoluble dietary fibers and soluble dietary fiber such as ss glucans
, barley can lower the cholesterol and low-density-lipoproteins to as significant level (McIntosh et al.
are polysaccharides with different primary molecular structures that vary depending on their source, which have different implications on their immunostimulant activity (Akramiene et al.
can be extracted from cell walls of yeast, oat, barley, seaweeds, algae, and bacteria, as well as fungi.
Cereals, fungi and yeast cell wall contain beta- glucans
as principle structural component, with molecular weight of 2000 kDa approximately.
Immune recognition of fungal [beta]-1, 3-1, 6- glucans
Numerous potential causes of false BG positivity have been reported and include hemodialysis with cellulose membranes; serosal exposure to gauze or other materials that contain glucans
, such as during surgery; and administration of blood products, albumin, immunoglobulin, coagulation factors, or plasma protein fraction filtered through BG-containing filters.
Jung et al (2007) suggests the need for intensive research on bacterial glucan
since the industries are using only the glucan
from mushrooms and yeast lysate even they are low in purity and yield due to the availability of diminutive information about bacterial glucans
The most active forms of beta- glucans
are those comprising D-glucose units with (1,3) links and with side-chains of D-glucose attached at the (1,6) position.
The European Commission has approved several Article 13 and 14 health claims for the use of beta glucans
for cholesterol reduction and the associated reduced risk of developing heart disease, as well as for digestive health and blood glucose control.
Zymosan and other glucans
have been demonstrated to enhance ROS generation by oyster hemocytes using chemiluminescence assays (Anderson 1994), and both ROS and RNS by flow cytometry (Lambert et al.
According to Koo, cranberry gunk is a formidable fortress of molecules known as glucans
- building blocks of plaque, stacked like bricks in a wall, rife with bacteria.
Furthermore, both companies are looking towards the future and have already initiated new research aiming at gaining further insights into the immune mechanisms involved locally through yeast glucans
supplementation, using the latest models developed.