Adhering sand grains decreased seed predation by 25% for heteromyid rodents, 94% for ants, and 77% for diurnal granivores
(birds and ground squirrels).
Seedling recruitment in Oryzopsis hymenoides: are desert granivores
mutualists or predators?
Solenopsis invicta may also alter patterns of seed survival by affecting the behavior or abundance of arthropod and rodent granivores
and frugivores were poorly represented (7.
Indeed, they can be granivores
, frugivores, nectar, exclusive or mixed insectivorous see occasional carnivores (toucon) over their need qualitative and quantitative food and necessary for their reproduction and their migration .
We considered the following trophic guilds: insectivores (I); frugivores (F); insectivore-frugivores (IF); granivores
(G); nectarivores (N); omnivores (O).
The production is generally mixed (speaking mainly of field crops and granivores
- poultry, pork, and vegetables and fruits for family consumption).
Burial may occur by seeds falling in the litter or in soil cracks, and is important for germination, because it may provide benefits such as reduction of air exposure, maintenance of high humidity levels, and protection against extreme temperatures and foraging granivores
(Everitt, 1983; Seiwa et al.
We explicitly assessed the importance of seed predation by granivores
, protecting half of the sown seeds inside wire cages.
Specific costs represent crop-specific inputs --seeds and seedlings, fertilizers, crop protection products and other specific crop costs--, livestock-specific inputs --feed for grazing stock and granivores
, other specific livestock costs-- and specific forestry costs.
Higher density of conspecific seeds and seedlings near adult trees correlates with disproportionately higher damage by granivores
(Howe & Smallwood 1982), herbivorous arthropods (Clark & Clark 1985) or pathogens (Augspurger 1983) than seedlings further away from adults, where both seedlings and their natural enemies are at lower densities.
The feeding habits were defined through field observations and literature data (SICK, 1997; KRUGEL, 1998), considering the predominant food item: carnivores (CAR), necrophages (NEP), frugivores (FRU), granivores
(GRA), insectivores (INS), nectarivores (NEC) and omnivores (ONI).