Thus, the Roman abbey, the philosophers' church, the Gothic art, Saxon art, the heavy, round pillar, which recalls Gregory VII
Tristan's unusual talents become useful to the Benedictines as well as to Rome, and the boy soon finds himself pulled into the visceral power struggle between Pope Gregory VII
and Emperor Henrich IV as they mercilessly wage spiritual, political and military war upon each other to claim supremacy over the continent of Europe.
As ruler of the Empire it was Henry IV's divine right to ordain bishops and other clergymen, an authority that the new pope Gregory VII
The Sicilian Guiscards' treatment of Pope Gregory VII
and the French king Philip IV's brutalizing of Pope Boniface VIII come to mind.
Over time, her role in reconciling Pope Gregory VII
(1073-1085)--the most famous among the popes she served--and future Emperor Henry IV by mediating their encounter at Canossa in 1077 consolidated as Matilda's most momentous political intervention.
The struggle was considered subversive by successive popes, beginning with Pope Gregory VII
(1523-1534), the noted ecclesiastical reformer.
One might have expected that in the wake of an age of increasing papal centralization of power, many more papal canonizations would follow -especially since a curious document from 1075 purportedly compiled by Pope Gregory VII
(1073-85) rather audaciously declared that every pope, legitimately ordained, is made a saint through the merits of St.
In order to extricate the Church from subjection to secular powers, Pope Gregory VII
wanted to strengthen the power of the papacy; he sought the help of canon law.
Celestine V in 1294 and Gregory VII
in 1415 were the only two other Pope's who resigned from their post in the history of the Church.
And the Catholic Church's effort to combat this led to the "Investiture Controversy," during which King Henry IV of Germany actually invaded Rome in 1081 and ousted Pope Gregory VII
rehearses the investiture controversy between Pope Gregory VII
and Emperor Henry IV, in which the pope claimed the exclusive right to nominate bishops and even a right to depose a monarch.
In reconstructing Hugh's career, Rennie outlines how Hugh's tough decisions--which perhaps crossed the boundaries of the law--allowed Gregory VII
to act as the mediator and the final umpire who dispensed mercy upon those who accepted his judgement.