Crespi BJ, Vanderkist BA (1997) Fluctuating asymmetry in vestigial and functional traits of a haplodiploid
MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid
Hymenoptera are haplodiploid
and females can determine the sex of each offspring by controlling the fertilization of the eggs (Flanders, 1965).
Cytonuclear theory for haplodiploid
species and x-linked genes.
Host genotype determines cytoplasmic incompatibility type in the haplodiploid
If Blochmannia is similarly involved in manipulating ant reproduction and sex ratios toward females, it would in part share this "preference" with colony workers, who are also favored to manipulate sex ratios owing to relatedness asymmetries under haplodiploid
Eusociality is relatively rare in nature, and the traditional view has been that a haplodiploid
reproductive pattern provides a genetic facilitator.
Male-killing bacteria have been observed in male heterogametic, female heterogametic, and haplodiploid
Because of the haplodiploid
genetic system (where females are diploid and develop from fertilized eggs, while males are haploid and develop from unfertilized eggs), a worker is less related to her own daughters (r = 1/2) than to her full sisters (r = 3/4; Hamilton 1964).
Coefficients of relatedness in a social insect colony containing a queen and her progeny reveal asymmetries that result from the haplodiploid
sex determination system of Hymenopterans.
Other studies have not examined the genetics of resistance in a functional haplodiploid
, says Richard W.
reproductive parasites like Wolbachia can induce a male-biased sex ratio in haplodiploid
species as a consequence of cytoplasmic incompatibility (Breeuwer & Werren 1990; breeuwer & Jacobs 1996).