Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens
that come into contact with the skin.
The effect of haptens
on protein-carrier immunogenicity.
To study the effect of HaCaT keratinocytes on the response of THP-1 cells to sensitizers, we exposed THP-1 cells for 24 h in the absence and presence of HaCaT cells to a set of 14 sensitizers (6 haptens
, 1 pre- and 7 prohaptens).
Similar to Janda's antiheroin vaccine, haptens
are bound to a protein carrier, spurring the immune system to create high levels of antibody to bind heroin and its metabolites in the blood and prevent it from crossing the blood-brain barrier.
1) ACD is generally induced by small compounds called haptens
(less than 500 daltons of molecular weight).
3] have been observed in other animal models that used haptens
to induce skin inflammation .
or allergens enter the epithelia, DCs react to these antigens and stimulate the acquired immune response.
such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, and toxins play a wide variety of roles in biology, and accurate measurement of them is essential.
It is also possible that methamphetamines alter self-proteins, making them immunogenic or creating haptens
Filaggrin deficiency confers a paracellular barrier abnormality that reduces nflammatory thresholds to irritants and haptens
Diagram 1: How Food Sensitivities Cause Inflammation Mechanisms * TLR's * Food antigens * Food chemicals * Haptens
* Amines * Pharmacologic * Immune Complexes * IgG * IgM * Lectins Cellular Activation * Lymphocytes * Sensitized T-cells * T-Cells * NK Cells * K Cells * Eosinophils * Basophils * Monocytes * Neutrophils Mediator Release * Cytokines * Interleukins * Chemokines * TNFs * Interferons * Leukotrienes * Histamine * ECP.
15) Photoallergic reactions occur when drug haptens
combine with skin proteins and are affected by UVA producing a cell-mediated immune reaction.