But like many of his generation, the Haskala
(enlightenment) and the world of secular learning beckoned him.
The relationships between the new methods and approaches of the nineteenth century Orientalists toward the Qur'an and that of the nineteenth century Muslim reformers become more meaningful if we keep in mind the direct connection between the foundation of this so-called scientific study of Islam in the nineteenth century by the Orientalists and the Jewish Enlightenment, or the Haskala
, of the latter half of the eighteenth century which provided tools, techniques, and methods to the Orientalists who laid a new foundation of Islamic studies.
Sha'ul can be described as the first Iraqi Jew in the modern period who tried to adopt in his writings a local version of the earlier Jewish European Haskala
, the Jewish enlightenment movement of the last quarter of the eighteenth century in Germany, was a literary and cultural movement that re-worked a portion of Judaism to conform with modernity.
by the modern secular ideals of the Haskala
movement, he refuses to
While it would be going too far to call them youth movements, Hasidism, and for that matter the Haskala
, attracted youthful followers during the early period of their formation.
The dates that Lowenstein employs are somewhat arbitrary, but 1770 is when a Haskala
(Enlightenment) group of Jews originated in Berlin.
Maimonides was a major inspiration for Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, and Jewish Enlighteners like Moses Mendelssohn regarded the works of Maimonides as a driving force in the project of haskala