Later analyses of Havasupai band leadership after the federal government by fiat effectively separated the eastern band [Havasupais] from other Pais can, therefore, shed no light upon Pai tribal and subtribal political organization (emphasis mine).
The Hualapai and Havasupai reservations were not created until the 1880s.
However, Ewing also described a Yavapai "head chief" and a Havasupai "head chief" which makes it clear that his understanding of Upland Yuman leadership was flawed and fits closest to postconquest realities.
ASK THE OJIBWE to tell you about the legends of Apostle Islands in Lake Superior, or the Miwok to recall their ancestral roots in Yosemite, or the shy Havasupais
to describe prayers they still offer spirits in the Grand Canyon.
6) Havasupais named kindreds after territories they occupied.
Iliff, pioneer federal schoolteacher in Cataract Canyon just after 1900, reported multiple occasions when the late chief Navajo summarily executed other Havasupais.
We discuss these topics: (1) economic camp, (2) band of kindred, and the issue of the similarity of the Havasupai to other Pai bands, (3) irrigated horticulture, and (4) subtribes.
4) Even Braatz labeled the Walapai and Havasupai as "a single social field of thirteen regional bands"(5)
However, the Handbook of North American Indians volume ten contains separate and distinct summaries of each group's preconquest sociopolitical organization--Hualapais with three subtribes headed by three official subchiefs and Havasupais
with less-formal structures--suggesting they were separate tribes before conquest.
3) This ahistorical presentation of static culture characterized classic theoretical formulations as well as ethnographies of specific groups, including the Walapais and Havasupais.
Participation of Havasupais shows that eastern band members recognized the authority of the Pai subtribal chiefs.
Havasupai Band Chief Navajo enjoyed more autonomy than the other leaders because his band inhabited a refuge area that newcomers did not covet.