Head kidney


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(Anat.) the most anterior of the three pairs of embryonic renal organs developed in most vertebrates; the pronephros.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: Role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to Ciarias batrachus.
The model presents two advantages; first, the lower cost of implementation, because of the use of primary cultures of macrophages from head kidney of trout and second, as a new proposal to assess the immunostimulatory capacity only at phenotypic level by conventional enzymatic quantifications and through the detection of cytokines secreted into the culture medium.
It is known that glucan is capable of enhancing innate immune responses, including respiratory burst of head kidney macrophages, serum complement activity and serum lysozyme [15] observed rainbow trout injected with 1% h-1,3-glucan showed significantly enhanced extracellular superoxide anion production of head kidney cells.