, Schopenhauer, more or less contemporaries of the former authors, already do not attribute the same value to systematicity and, to sustain the claim of philosophy as a rigorous knowledge, they use different tools.
9-298) are concerned with the detailed setting-forth of the critiques of Hegel's Science of Logic by Schelling, Fichte, Branib, Fries, Herbart
, Schubarth, Carganico, and four other anonymous reviewers.
Husserl finds this "dogma of the momentariness of a whole of consciousness"(74) in Lotze and Herbart
, but one suspects that it applies equally to his own rejected interpretation of time-consciousness in terms of contents and apprehensions.
Both defenders (such as Fries and Tourtural) and critics (such as Herbart
and Steinbuch) read Kant to have made the naturalistic, "psychological" claim that the ability to perceive a three-dimensional world is not learned, but innate.
(1776-1841) then used these same concepts, combining them with scientific methods of research, in order to develop a systematic approach to curriculum development.
For example, one of the key works of the nineteenth century, Eduard Hanslick's On the Beautiful in Music, receives much sharper definition by being presented in the context of writings by Hans-Georg Nageli, Johann Friedrich Herbart
, and Arthur Schopenhauer.
Pestalozzi's legacy continued in the life and writings of (1) Friedrich Frobel (who published The Education of Man in 1826), (2) Johann Friedrich Herbart
, a critic of Kant, whose main writings span the period from 1806 (General Theory of Education) to 1825 (Psychology as a Science), and (3) Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) whose writings, reform of the Prussian school and university system, and founding of the university in Berlin are the culmination of the attention given to the organization and purpose of education by the highest ranking members of society as a direct response to the abysmal conditions prevailing in the universities.
The choice of multiplicative formulae over additive formulae rests on the logic of Freud and Herbart
, which appears to support a multiplication algorithm.
John Dewey, Democracy and Education 260-61 (MacMillan 1966) (1916); John Dewey, Ethical Principles Underlying Education, in Third Yearbook of the National Herbart
Society 7 (1897), reprinted in 5 Early Works of John Dewey 54, 59-60 (1972); John Dewey, My Pedagogic Creed, School J.