The confessional state of the Dutch Republic also felt threatened in the 1730s and 1740s, as is clear from the strong reactions to the immigration of Herrnhuters
, as well as from the polemics concerning pietist "bestsellers," and last but not least from the commotion caused by the Nijkerk movement.
Andreas Gestrich and Carola Wessel detail the variant experiences of Herrnhuters
in eighteenth-century Russia and the upper Ohio Valley, respectively.
This latter image is part of the material examined by Irina Novikova in a fascinating article on the constru ction of national identity in Latvia, in which she also draws on peasant women s folk songs (collected and written down in the nineteenth century by male intellectuals as evidence of an "authentic" collective identity), the epic narrative of Latvian origins Lacplesis written by Andrejs Pumpers with a warrior hero, and ideologies of familial relations created by the religious group known as Latvia as the Herrnhuters