This patient's disease is TCIRG1-related disease, which occurs due to the loss of function of both alleles on the homologous chromosomes
Different lengths of the same arm (and band/locus, where applicable) from homologous chromosomes
were combined to mean values and then represented in the haploid complement of the idiogram.
During meiosis homologous chromosomes
pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange termed crossover.
The main cause of the sterility of mules and hinnies is probably related to failure of pairing of homologous chromosomes
at meiosis during spermatogenesis (Wodsedalek, 1966; Taylor and Short, 1973; Chandley et al.
Humans are diploid organisms; they have paired homologous chromosomes
in their somatic cells, which contain two copies of each gene.
Also, in the present study, it was probable that the proper alignment of the homologous chromosomes
was not possible due to the reciprocal translocation, thereby resulting in unbalanced gametes.
Whole-genome sequencing generates a single consensus sequence without assigning variants to specific homologous chromosomes
were arranged on the basis of morphological similarity (size, position of centromere and secondary constriction).
In humans, the somatic cells (or nonsex cells) have two sets of homologous chromosomes
in each cell (each somatic cell has 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
for a total of 46 chromosomes).
Of these, 44 are known as autosomes and consist of matched pairs of chromosomes, known as homologous chromosomes
This demonstration further reinforces the idea that the synapse of homologous chromosomes
is a hallmark of meiosis because the bi-orientation of nonsister kinetochores (two kinetochores from homologous chromosomes
) results in the physical separation of the homologous chromosomes
At this point the homologous chromosomes
are separated, and the cell divides, giving the intermediate cells two versions of a chromosome from each homologous pair.