Black circles indicate sinapomorfies for the generalized tracks: 14= Crotalus aquilus, 18= Crotalus ravus, 61= Storeira hidalgoensis, 75= Thamnophis sumichrasti, 31= Geophis mutitorques, 32=Geophis semidoliatus, 44= Micrurus tener, 55= Rhadinea gaigeae, 2= Agkistrodon taylori, 20= Crotalus totonacus, 42= Micrurus bernadi, 51= Pliocercus elapoides, 56= Rhadinaea marcellae, 57= Rhadinaea quinquelineata, 78= Chersodromus rubriventris 80= Geophis turbidus 81= Lampropeltis ruthveni, white circles indicate homoplasies
Their ancestral sequence of the reconstruction indicates excessive numbers of homoplasies
in the MERS genome and the host-polymorphism association analysis data did not show the presence of "human" or "camel" alleles, but the samples size was also too small to address the question in great detail.
De plus, puisqu'il semble n'exister qu'un nombre limite de solutions structurales a un probleme fonctionnel donne, les homoplasies
, ou ressemblances trompeuses entre les organismes adaptes a des modes de vie similaires peuvent induire en erreur l'observateur exterieur qui considere que ces ressemblances signifient des mecanismes adaptatifs similaires alors qu'il peut n'en etre rien (par exemple, ressemblance entre le dauphin et le requin).
Because of the low number of homoplasies
expected (18), a neighbor-joining tree was obtained by using MEGA5 (23), with observed number of substitutions as a measure of genetic distance.
The Baileyans utilized these homoplasious characters even though it was recognized by, at the latest, the time of Darwin that homoplasies
are useless for the inference of relationships.
It has been shown that shell characters in gastropod phylogeny reconstructions are no more prone to homoplasies
than are other types of morphological characters (Schander & Sundberg 2001).
MCs differ from noisy characters (random data sensu Wenzel & Siddall 1999) in that they include not only homoplasies
that result from random processes, but also those caused by processes of evolutionary convergence (adaptive and nonadaptive), by among lineages differences in life history traits, or by structural, functional and developmental constraints.
This clade is supported by two synapomorphies (15-1: pygophore of male with a sinistrodorsal tumescence; 16-1: club-shaped left paramere) and two homoplasies
(14-1: genital opening of male with a tergal process; 17-1: right paramere L-shaped), and a bootstrap value of 64.
2008) These phylog-enies imply several major homoplasies
or losses of important morphological characters such as nervous system and basal membrane, and therefore they appear less plausible.
Morphological evolution, aptations, homoplasies
, constraints, and evolutionary trends: catfishes as a case study on general phylogeny and macroevolution.
2003), the absence of biogeographical definition of areas of endemism may result from either low endemicity and/or the presence of geographical homoplasies
caused by local population extinction or dispersal.
By knowing which species are closely related to which other ones we can test hypotheses of morphological synapomorphies (homology) and homoplasies