These include mediation by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, as well as by increase in the Hox gene
The ParaHox gene cluster is an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene
Russell, "Genomic Approaches to Understanding Hox Gene
Function," Advances in Genetics 76 (2011): 55-91.
Conservation and elaboration of Hox gene
regulation during evolution of the vertebrate head.
4] HOX gene
expression regulates the growth and development of the human endometrium.
His research focuses on mechanisms of Hox gene
regulation by the mixed-lineage leukemia protein and the role of Hox genes
in hematopoiesis and leukemia.
Branchial HOX gene
expression and human craniofacial development.
The HHMI research team was led by Thomas Jessell, who says that members of the Hox gene
family had been known to regulate aspects of brain development, but "few people had paid attention to the fact that these genes are also expressed in the spinal cord.
These authors suggest that the common defining feature of animals - a characteristic which they call the "zootype" - is the existence of a series of homologous genes, the Hox gene
cluster, the first to be discovered being the homeobox-containing genes of Drosophila, which specify the differentiation of varying structures along the antero-posterior axis of the body, by switching on a cascade of other genes.
expression patterns are likely important to keep stem cells from improperly differentiating into skin, muscle, or other tissues.
So, probably mutation of HOX GENE
leads to sacralization of coccygeal vertebra .
Hoxal3null mice have agenesis of the caudal portion of the Mullerian duct, and Hoxdl3 (homeobox Dl3)-null mice that also lack one copv of Hoxal3 exhibit severe malformations of the vagina and external genitalia, suggesting critical roles for these Hox gene
paralogs in posterior FRT development (Frornental-Ramain etal.