2) They are compositions connected with the so-called Improperia tradition.
Scholars have pointed out the extraordinary diffusion of the Improperia compositions in Syriac, Greek, and Latin liturgical usage; in patristic writers such as Aphrahat, Ephrem of Nineveh, Jacob of Serugh, Melito of Sardis, Cyril of Jerusalem, Asterius Sophistes, Romanos the Melodist, Pseudo-Cyprian (the author of Adversus Iudaeos); in the sermon "On the Soul and the Body" ascribed to Alexander of Alexandria and preserved only in Coptic; in New Testament Apocrypha such as the Acts of Pilate, the Acts of Thomas, and the Gospel of Bartholomew.
Yet, even for hymns that can be described as "associated with the Improperia tradition," Melito remains a significant predecessor.
62) The Latin Improperia chanted during the veneration of the cross on Good Friday, the Advent hymn Veni Immanuel, and the so-called "O" Antiphons still describe Christ as the one who appeared to Moses and led Israel out of captivity.
Also called the Improperia
, the reproaches are part of the rite for the veneration of the cross.
13 2), does not necessarily imply a direct Eastern influence, since it formed part of the Good Friday improperia
of the Western rite which `are extremely ancient.
Instead the book contains a setting of the hymn Ave maris stella--unusually, of all seven verses--and a multipartite Improperia
, as well as the sequence-motet Inviolata, Integra et casta es, Maria, in which Werrecore, like most sixteenth-century imitators, follows Josquin Desprez in dividing the text into three sections.
The Stabat mater and the Improperia
both make extensive use of slow, consonant block chords in root position, and while the Missa Papae Marcelli has its share of imitative counterpoint, it is famously more homophonic than most previous Masses; its clarity and intelligibility were reputed to have saved church music from being banned during the Council of Trent.
In the final chapter, Mellers turns to Mompou's choral music for the Catholic Church, notably the Cantar del alma (1961), Improperia
(1964), and Vida interior (1966), and concludes with a discussion of the composer's collection of piano pieces called Musica Callada (1959--67).
The author finds a similar connection between musical style and purported anti-Semitic content embedded in Palestrina's musical setting of another highly charged text: Jesus's reproaches to the Jews in the Improperia sung as part of the Good Friday liturgy (1560).
Nor does she suggest that the music (as distinct from the words) of the Palestrina's Improperia was perceived by participants in the Good Friday service in the Sistine Chapel as conveying, through its chordal simplicity, any idea of Christian exclusion of Jewish noise.
21) derived from a stanza in "Flete, fideles anime" (18) and of a piece with the Improperia
, only recently banned from the Good Friday service.