These esteemed writers, philosophers, and scientists also all had works banned by the Catholic Church on its infamous Index Librorum
Prohibitorum or Index of Prohibited Books.
English practices are thus sharply distinguished from the dominant Continental practices exemplified by the Index librorum
prohibitorum, though both systems derive from Roman law and are modified by medieval canonical, civil, and theological interventions.
On a serious note, the works of most of the philosophers mentioned above were officially banned by the Catholic church and included in the Index of Prohibited Books (or Index Librorum
Pohibitorum, to give it its impressive Latin name.
Dante, who had written the Monarchia as a "publicist document intended for pragmatic effect in both the political and spiritual arenas" (40), would have never expected to see his work placed on the Index librorum
prohibitorum by the Tridentine Council in 1564, where it stayed until 1881
Bishop Arethas and other Byzantines regarded him as the Anti-Christ; he was included in the first edition of the Index Librorum
Prohibitorum (1557); on September 3, 1766, he was the protagonist villain in a musical drama called 'Lucian of Samosata the Hapless Atheist' presented by the Jesuit School at Regenshurg; Lord Macaulay dubbed him 'The Voltaire of Antiquity'.
1571 Pope Paul IV issues the first formal Index Librorum
Prohibitorum, or Index of Prohibited Books.
A wholesale evaluation took place that began with the two volumes of Benedikt Sattler's (a Bavarian professor of theology) Antikant, which appeared in 1788, and was sealed by the insertion of the Critique of Pure Reason in the Index librorum
prohibitorum in 1827 (p.