Internal-combustion


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In`ter´nal-com`bus´tion


a.1.(Mach.) Designating, or pertaining to, any engine (called an Internal-combustion engine) in which the heat or pressure energy necessary to produce motion is developed in the engine cylinder, as by the explosion of a gas, and not in a separate chamber, as in a steam-engine boiler. The gas used may be a fixed gas, or one derived from alcohol, ether, gasoline (petrol), naphtha, oil (petroleum), etc. There are three main classes: (1) gas engines proper, using fixed gases, as coal, blast-furnace, or producer gas; (2) engines using the vapor of a volatile fluid, as the typical gasoline (petrol) engine; (3) oil engines, using either an atomized spray or the vapor (produced by heat) of a comparatively heavy oil, as petroleum or kerosene. In all of these the gas is mixed with a definite amount of air, the charge is composed in the cylinder and is then exploded either by a flame of gas (flame ignition - now little used), by a hot tube (tube ignition) or the like, by an electric spark (electric ignition, the usual method is gasoline engines, or by the heat of compression, as in the Diesel engine. Gas and oil engines are chiefly of the stationary type. Gasoline engines are largely used for automobile vehicles, boats, etc. Most internal-combustion engines use the Otto (four-stroke) cycle, though many use the two-stroke cycle. They are almost universally trunk engines and single-acting. Because of the intense heat produced by the frequent explosions, the cylinders must be cooled by a water jacket (water-cooled) or by air currents (air cooled) to give the maximum thermodynamic efficiency and to avoid excessive friction or seizing.
References in periodicals archive ?
China's largest internal-combustion locomotive manufacturer, CSR Ziyang has signed a contract with China's Ministry of Commerce to produce two internal-combustion passenger locomotives and spare parts for Turkmenistan in 2013, and is the only firm to do so, said CSR.
The vans use both a traditional gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor.
Scuderi says its design is able to achieve compression cylinder pressures equal to that of a conventional internal-combustion engine during the combustion cycle, thus creating large amounts of turbulence for improved atomization of the fuel/air mix.
The fuel cell, which chemically converts hydrogen to electricity (with water as a byproduct), has the potential to eventually replace the internal-combustion engine, because its far more than just the best environmental choice.
The new microturbine system is cleaner, more compact, and simpler to operate than the internal-combustion engines, officials said.
Forklift buyers have long had to make a fundamental choice between internal-combustion and electric models.
Gasoline automobiles (and the internal-combustion engine which burns gasoline) took over the auto industry for three primary reasons: (1) in 1901, vast oil reserves were discovered in Texas; (2) in 1912, a viable electric starter for gasoline engines was introduced; and (3) Henry Ford decided to mass-produce gasoline-burning cars.
The coming of the internal-combustion engine, especially the Otto four-stroke engine (see 1876), offered a much better hope.
CSR noted that CSR Ziyang, China's largest internal-combustion locomotive manufacturer, is the only company to entered into a contract with China's Ministry of Commerce for the production of two internal-combustion passenger locomotives and spare parts for Turkmenistan in 2013.
Among other things, we need to agree on standards for the production of environmentally friendly, low cost and easily deliverable hydrogen; gas stations have to be turned incrementally into hydrogen stations; reliability standards must be established and cost goals met for fuel-cell battery replacements; and fuel-vehicles must become affordable, with a range, reliability and cold-starting performance that exceeds their internal-combustion counterparts.
BAT shares are up nearly 400 percent in 1998, gaining on news that the company has developed a technology that lets a modified internal-combustion engine propel a standard-size car at least 80 miles on a single gallon of fuel.
If such an internal-combustion engine were developed, it would be much smaller than a steam engine and so much more readily set into motion.