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|Noun||1.||Irak - a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as Iraq|
Ansar al Islam, Ansar al-Islam, Supporters of Islam - a radical Islamic group of terrorists in the Iraqi part of Kurdistan who oppose an independent secular nation as advocated by the United States; some members fought with the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan; said to receive financial support from Saddam Hussein
Abu Nidal Organization, ANO, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, Fatah Revolutionary Council, Fatah-RC, Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims - a Palestinian international terrorist organization that split from the PLO in 1974; has conducted terrorist attacks in 20 countries; "in the 1980s the Fatah-RC was considered the most dangerous and murderous Palestinian terror group"
Arab League - an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperation
OPEC, Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries - an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
IIS, Iraqi Intelligence Service, Iraqi Mukhabarat - the most notorious and possibly the most important arm of Iraq's security system; "the Iraqi Mukhabarat has been involved in numerous terrorist activities"
Republican Guard - formerly Iraq's elite military unit whose primary role was to protect the government in Baghdad
Akhbari - a religious movement by Arab Shiite Muslims in 17th century Iraq that is opposed to the Usuli; "Akhbari Shiism has never promoted political control"
Middle East, Mideast, Near East - the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the site of such ancient civilizations as Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam; had continuous economic and political turmoil in the 20th century; "the Middle East is the cradle of Western civilization"
Gulf States - the countries in southwestern Asia that border the Persian Gulf
Bagdad, Baghdad, capital of Iraq - capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; "Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world"
Karbala, Kerbala, Kerbela - a city of central Iraq to the south of Baghdad; a holy city for Shiite Muslims because it is the site of the tomb of Mohammed's grandson who was killed there in 680
Kirkuk - a city in northeastern Iraq; the center of a rich oilfield with pipelines to the Mediterranean
Mosul - a city in northern Iraq on the Tigris across from the ruins of Nineveh
Mesopotamia - the land between the Tigris and Euphrates; site of several ancient civilizations; part of what is now known as Iraq
Babylonia, Chaldaea, Chaldea - an ancient kingdom in southern Mesopotamia; Babylonia conquered Israel in the 6th century BC and exiled the Jews to Babylon (where Daniel became a counselor to the king)
Chaldaea, Chaldea - an ancient region of Mesopotamia lying between the Euphrates delta and the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Desert; settled in 1000 BC and destroyed by the Persians in 539 BC; reached the height of its power under Nebuchadnezzar II
Sumer - an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq; site of the Sumerian civilization of city-states that flowered during the third millennium BC
Assyria - an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia which is in present-day Iraq
Assur, Asur, Ashur - an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris and traditional capital of Assyria; just to the south of the modern city of Mosul in Iraq
Nineveh - an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris across from the modern city of Mosul in the northern part of what is now known as Iraq
Kurdistan - an extensive geographical region in the Middle East to the south of the Caucasus
Iraqi Kurdistan - the part of Kurdistan that is in northwestern Iraq
Syrian Desert - a desert of northern Arabia occupying western Iraq, southern Syria, eastern Jordan, and northern Saudi Arabia
Asia - the largest continent with 60% of the earth's population; it is joined to Europe on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world's earliest civilizations
Euphrates, Euphrates River - a river in southwestern Asia; flows into the Persian Gulf; was important in the development of several great civilizations in ancient Mesopotamia