While the Badagas have be:te habba, a hunting festival ("mock hunting expedition"), in which they make offerings to Be:te Sa:mi, "so that he will protect their crops from damage by wild animals" (agriculturalists again), the Irulas pray to Ve:tte toga before each hunting expedition (which is of course no "mock" hunting), and have a ve:tte abba, hunting festival, most important in their culture.
The Irulas themselves derive the name of the animal from the sound which it apparently produces: [bo bo bo:].
For the Badagas, and for some Irulas
, the two goddesses, Ma:ri and Macani, represent a "division of labor": Ma:ri for smallpox, Macani for cholera.
23), who continues: "The assumption of the antiquity, the primitiveness of the highlanders was contained in the suggestion that the well-known economic and tribal symbiosis of the various highland communities, the agriculturalist Badagas, the pastoral Todas, the crafts-oriented Kotas, the hunting/gathering Kuru mbas and Irulas
, possessed a jajmani-like relationship.
In 1979, I published a short paper on "the honey-gathering skills" of the Irulas
(including Urali Irulas
),(4) which deals, apart from other things, with the pertinent terms, and with the honey-gathering motif as occurring in the Urali myth (involving Karaya and Madappa).
In addition to the usual indices there is also a bibliography of works on the Irulas
and some pages of black and white plates.
The Tamil Nadu state forest department agreed to allow Irulas
to capture such poisonous snakes as cobras and kraits, milk them for their venom, and release them in forest reserves.
This section on Indian studies also includes articles, with photos, on the two groups of the Nilgiri tribes of South India: (1) the Todas, Kotas, and Badagas; and (2) the Kurumbas, Irulas
, and Paniyans.
Marginalised groups such as the Dalits and Irulas
, who face the most terrible forms of deprivation and abuse under normal circumstances, required special attention.
The social profile of Kaverirajapuram consists mostly of landless Dalits and Irulas
, a tribal community.
Presbyterian World Service and Development partners with two local organizations, the Institute for Development Education and Roofs for the Roofless, to reach out to the Irulas
, starting with basic education, health care and assistance organizing themselves so they can access services for the settlement.
Ethnobotany of the Todas, the Kotas, the Irulas
of the Nilgiris.