Evidently associating "inclusive fitness" (the general idea) with kin selection
(the more particular application of the general idea), Wilson sometimes says that kin selection
exists (76, 109), sometimes that it does not (53, 106), and sometimes that it might or might not exist but that if it does exist it does not count for much (174, 181).
Research also indicates that fa'afafine exhibit elevated avuncular tendencies and behaviour compared to women and gynephilic men, which is consistent with the Kin Selection
The study not only demonstrates that the influence of kin selection
may stretch beyond that of nuclear and extended family groups thus promoting co-operation in large social groups, but it is also the first study to show that kin selection
may promote the communal construction and maintenance of an animal-built physical structure.
Gad Saad, a professor of marketing at Concordia University and the founder of the field of evolutionary consumption, argues most acts of consumption can be mapped into four main Darwinian drives--namely, survival (we prefer food high in calories); reproduction (we use products as sexual signals); kin selection
(we naturally exchange gifts with family members); and reciprocal altruism (we enjoy giving gifts to close friends).
The explanatory resources of naturalism include kin selection
, the need of human beings to cooperate, and spontaneous feelings of sympathy.
Rogers' piece is the latest twist on a relatively old evolutionary concept called kin selection
, which is an evolutionary explanation for why people are willing to help relatives despite the risk of harm or even death.
Less formal though no less central to his argument are evolutionary theory--in particular Hamilton's theory of kin selection
(accounting for our fairness instincts)--and the Rawls/Harsanyi concept of the Original Position (OP), from which a rational agent is imagined to choose what kind of society to live in, given that she doesn't know what station in life she will end up occupying.
However, in modern Western society, kinship is no longer the sole basis of community organization, and kin selection
is therefore not so relevant as a selective force in reproduction.
Inductively, Fukuyama pulls five propositions from the evidence gathered and collated: Human beings never existed in a pre-social state; natural human sociability is built around two principles, kin selection
and reciprocal altruism; human beings have an innate propensity for creating and following norms or rules; human beings have a natural propensity for violence; and, human beings by nature desire not just material resources but also recognition (pp.
Instead, Super Cooperators sets forth five mechanisms of cooperation that are mathematically necessary for evolution: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, spatial games, such as networking, group selection and kin selection
provides insight into how social behavior evolves.
nurture debate, he maps acts of consumption onto four Darwinian drives: survival, related to foods eaten that are high in calories; reproduction, through the use of products as sexual signals; kin selection
, in gift exchange with family members; and reciprocity, by offering gifts to close friends.