n.1.The name adopted in the southern part of the United States by a secret political organization, active for several years after the close of the Civil War, and having for its aim the repression of the political power of the freed negroes; - called also Kuklux Klan and the Klan. It exerienced a revival in the 1920's, in the north as well as the south, and persists as a weak organization into the 1990's. Its goals were primarily anti-negro and anti-Catholic, and its tactics included terrorist attacks on negroes for the purpose of intimidation with the goal of continuing segregation. The signature activity of the Klan was the burning of a cross, either at rallies of Klansmen, or on the property of African-Americans which they hoped to intimidate.
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There is surely no place in any modern civilised society for white supremacists, the KuKlux Klan, or the waving of swastikas.
With the rumored Negro Kuklux supposedly being raised in the area, whites began the armed escalation.
It showed the cave of the Kuklux Klan and a drum-head court-martial at which a negro was tried for an attack on a thirteen-year-old girl.
Earlier that same day, the black men of Columbia were the subject of a manifesto attributed to "the negro Kuklux klan" and published in a local paper, which declared that "the White KKK have come and now the Black KKK is A Coming.
Soon the cry was raised and passed mouth to mouth, "The Kuklux are coming
When after the founding of the Nashville chapter a Democratic newspaper in Nashville described the Pale Faces as "an auxiliary of the great Ku-Klux Klan," the Columbia Pale Faces passed resolutions that denied the "soft impeachment" of the charge and proclaimed that "we have no connection with the order of Kuklux, nor any other political or sectarian organization.
After the last shovelful of earth had been thrown upon the freshly-raised mount, the Kuklux, about twenty strong, kneeled around, and, raising their right hands toward Heaven, swore vengeance on the murderer of John BicknelL.
In his monthly report for May 1868, agent Eastman noted that he had "but few complaints and not any assaults worth reporting [, the] Kuklux .
100) During the first half of June, agent Eastman reported from Columbia that the Kuklux were on a "warpath" and concluded that "the considerate portion of the Klan is being run over by the dare devils.
White, a schoolteacher who was born and raised in Columbia, estimated that there were five hundred Kuklux in the town.
In repealing Republican laws providing for the militia protection of Union citizens, this speaker observed, the Redeemers "unmistakably betray their intention to protect their Kuklux or Pale Face allies.
12, 1867, quoted in Garrett, "The KuKlux Klan, the Pale Faces in Maury County," 8.