Lister advises to avoid kumbhaka
, a particular practice of holding the breath between inhalation and exhalation, because it is contrary to breathing for singers.
bar] and later texts distinguish eight kinds of kumbhaka (i.
Of the standard eight types of kumbhaka listed in Hatha texts (e.
bar]dis, kumbhaka, and some allusions to practices resembling the Hathayogic mudr[a.
An outline of the yogic body and an analysis of two advanced practices called khecari mudra and kevala kumbhaka are provided to show how this specialized path to optimum health culminates in the hathayoga notion of divine body or divya de ha.
To support this thesis I also look in some detail at two specific practices, namely, khecarT mudra and kevala kumbhaka, and show how the metaphysics of non-duality (advaita) is informed in the medieval hathayoga textual tradition (2) by an underlying preoccupation with purification, rejuvenation, and longevity.
What Canda describes is the ulta sadhana of the Naths in which the male is inflamed sexually and then by means of the kumbhaka, "drawing in the stomach 10 or 15 times," causes the semen to flow in reverse back to the reservoir in the head.
Sekh Canda neither mentions kumbhaka (breath control) in this passage nor uses any word that indicates "stomach.
because of the suppression of the upward-going [wind] only kumbhaka
is here meant (yady api recakapurakakumbhaka-bhedat pranayamas trividhah [cf.