Sunday, October 8 marked the 20 year anniversary of the State Department designating Lebanese Hizballah
as a foreign terrorist organization.
The report highlighted Iran as "the foremost state sponsor of terrorism", alongside the Lebanese Hizballah
, both whom poses threats to the US, and surely the report didn't overlook the Islamic State (ISIS) as an active terrorism threat.
Hamas, Lebanese Hizballah
, and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) maintain representative offices in Tehran, in part to help coordinate Iranian financing and training.
It studies primarily Islamic terrorist organizations such as the Lebanese Hizballah
organization, the Palestinian Hamas movement, and the Abu Sayyaf Group in the Philippines, who utilize kidnapping as a strategy to collect ransom and to promote the goals of their organizations and patrons.
Iran's support for the Lebanese Hizballah
, Palestine Islamic Jihad, and Hamas make Iran a player in the Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab disputes, and Iran's backing of Houthis in Yemen give it influence on Saudi Arabia's southern border.
He also discovers that sectarianism in the region has largely been the product of the institutional weaknesses of Gulf states, leading to excessive alarm by entrenched Sunni elites and calculated attempts by regimes to discredit Shia political actors as proxies for Iran, Iraq, or Lebanese Hizballah
The more Asad falls on hard times, the more Tehran has to scramble to prevent damage to its image with the "Arab street" and to its close ally, Lebanese Hizballah
The conflict also gives Iran influence in the Arab world through its clients, Lebanese Hizballah
helicopters; some reportedly were transferred to Lebanese Hizballah
Iran's relationship with Lebanese Hizballah
is illustrative of how the IRGC develops its proxies abroad.
The Iranian Quds Force is using Lebanese Hizballah
essentially as a proxy, as a surrogate, in Iraq," said Brigadier General Kevin Bergner, USA, former deputy commander, Multi-National Force-Northwest.
As with earlier works by Emerson, critics are likely to respond that the book is marred by portraying every single one of these groups as dangerous to the United States when many are better understood as opponents of Israel that, however violent, have arisen in response to Israeli policies in the Occupied Territories and Lebanon, and by conflating organizations whose links are tenuous at best, such as Hizballah al-Hijaz, accused of carrying out the Khobar Towers bombing of 1996, and the Lebanese Hizballah
, founded to resist the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon in the 1980s.