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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
jur) at least is a R-Turkic loan-word for other probable borrowings see above and below).
In Nepali, the loan-word annkal is also used to mean close friends of one's parents, and (more commonly than in contemporary British English) strangers of a similar age to one's parents.
3) The Hebrew pronunciation of an Egyptian loan-word is a key as to how that word was spoken in Egyptian.
Modern English monkey does not represent a Romance loan-word of Arabian origin and transmitted by Middle Low German but is a vernacular diminutive derived from monk.
61), who accepts sitrang as a Persian loan-word but, according to Ibn Kamal Pasa, derives it from the wrong word.
Loan-words for the plant and animal names have been identified from Classical Nahuatl, Spanish, Taino, and Mixtec"--references to.
Loan-words for the plant and animal names have been identified from Classical Nahuatl, Spanish, Taino, and Mixtec" - references to some of the native languages of Mexico prior to the Spanish Conquest.
However, in the original article it was stated: "Interchanges of qof and gimel are less common in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, though not unknown, particularly in loan-words.
Then they comment on the different strata of Scandinavian loan-words and the probability that these loans might have been considered as colloquial or even vulgar long before becoming standard English" (De Caluwe-Dor 1979: 680).
The vast majority of English words are loan-words from other languages; for example cigarette, lingerie, naive, massage from French, to name but a few.
loan-words, words related to anime, or film titles.
New to this volume is full discussion of Semitic loan-words throughout and the inclusion of both primary and secondary literatures of Egyptian philology.