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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
Another Japanese loan-word which has made its way into common parlance is 'bokeh,' which is basically the parts of a photograph which aren't in focus.
I want to go back to history, what is our place here, about Jerusalem, about Palestine, when like we said, Arabic doesn't even have 'P,' so this loan-word also merits scrutiny," she said during a debate on the Labor party's plans for separation from Palestine.
OE lagu 'law', for example, is ultimately accepted as Norse-derived, but only after the author has laid out the evidence of related nouns in OE such as feorlegu and orloeg, and cognates like Old High German urlag and Old Saxon orlag that leave at least a small possibility that we are dealing with a semantic loan rather than a loan-word, or with a fully native term.
In what follows, it will be argued that the word dukun throughout its history as a loan-word in Malay/Indonesian, has been a highly charged rhetorical label at the epicentre of debates about intense social and religious issues.
jur) at least is a R-Turkic loan-word for other probable borrowings see above and below).
In Nepali, the loan-word annkal is also used to mean close friends of one's parents, and (more commonly than in contemporary British English) strangers of a similar age to one's parents.
Thus a loan-word qualified to be listed under the external rubric as a typical item imposed by the force of prestige may be seen from the internal standpoint to possess an argotic function, to be a means of affirming one's solidarity with a certain social, artistic or technical group, or to act as a signum de classe which serves to maintain, advertise or claim the user's right to a given social status.
For it seems clear to me that in this portion of the Defensio Secunda Milton expanded his Latin vocabulary by creating his own Greek loan-word.
3) The Hebrew pronunciation of an Egyptian loan-word is a key as to how that word was spoken in Egyptian.
In other places, like the use of the Arabic loan-word fatwa , it is jarring.
the Dutch loan-word ordonnans ('orderly'), which is spelled h-r-d-n-s, see p.
Modern English monkey does not represent a Romance loan-word of Arabian origin and transmitted by Middle Low German but is a vernacular diminutive derived from monk.