loanword

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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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loan·word

 (lōn′wûrd′)
n.
A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.

loan•word

(ˈloʊnˌwɜrd)

n.
a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
Translations
References in periodicals archive ?
It continues to issue fatwas against English loan-words such as "e-mail" and "weekend", and called the proposal to allow some university courses to be taught in English "linguistic treason".
Curiously, the bibliography mentions the etymological dictionary of Jus Badudu of 2003, but not Russel Jones' dictionary of loan-words in Indonesian and Malay that was published in 2008.
In the linguistic paper devoted to the study of the Middle English names of occupation in the aspect of the theory of nomination there are 176 words denoting merchants (44 of them denoting tradespeople in the most general sense and 132 words denoting the names of merchants specializing in the trade of certain goods; 13 loan-words of French origin among them) (Solonovich 1986: 144-145).
But despite classes and many attempts to talk with locals, O'Neill picks up hardly any Emirati Arabic, and the Dubai-specific words she discovers are loan-words from Hindi and English.
Loan-words for the plant and animal names have been identified from Classical Nahuatl, Spanish, Taino, and Mixtec"--references to.
Because Malay came into widespread use as a lingua franca replete with a large number of loan-words, many Malay terms have nebulous etymological origins, or speakers believe the word to be indigenous to Malay.
However, in the original article it was stated: "Interchanges of qof and gimel are less common in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, though not unknown, particularly in loan-words.
Then they comment on the different strata of Scandinavian loan-words and the probability that these loans might have been considered as colloquial or even vulgar long before becoming standard English" (De Caluwe-Dor 1979: 680).
The vast majority of English words are loan-words from other languages; for example cigarette, lingerie, naive, massage from French, to name but a few.
loan-words, words related to anime, or film titles.
New to this volume is full discussion of Semitic loan-words throughout and the inclusion of both primary and secondary literatures of Egyptian philology.
They had no scruples about mixing colloquial expressions, Turkish loan-words, and other stylistic impurities into their straightforward prose, which sometimes has an almost conversational tone.