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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
It is clear that the shared history between Britain and India has left behind a legacy of loanwords and other lexical innovations that have greatly enriched the English word stock, she said.
She examines how speakers from these so-called zealous groups cope with the conflict between a declared linguistic ideology and the reality of language contact in which their Yiddish is replete with Israeli Hebrew loanwords.
Although many of them were used at that time, from 1937 onwards most of them simply had to be replaced with Russian loanwords.
It is well known that loanwords are adapted, to varying degrees, to the phonological and morphological system of the recipient language.
A list is presented of loanwords with their purported sources (p.
Leading periodicals and dailies, such as La Lucha, La Discusion or Diario de la Marina, turned into a predictable showroom of loanwords and calques, through which a significant number of these lexical units were assimilated by Cuban Spanish.
As exposed in the following sections, our investigation reveals: (a) the predominant role of the morphology of an inflectionally-rich language, that is, Greek, for the inflectional adjustment of nominal loanwords (see also Aikhenvald 2000, 2006 and Ralli 2012a,b, 2013 for similar claims); (b) a certain role played by a form matching of the endings between the native nouns of the donor and those of the recipient language; (c) tendencies of the recipient language, to classify its nouns by distinguishing between native and loans in terms of inflection class and apply neuter gender to -human loans.
The lexical changes, however, resulted in the emergence of a vernacular peculiar to the Chinese Muslims; it operated by borrowing the loanwords from Arabic and adapting them to the syntax and phonological morphemes of the Chinese language.
Secondly, it would take an extremely disciplined and individualistic translator, if one takes into account also other (nearly) contemporaneous Psalter renditions, allegedly replete with loanwords, to incorporate such an endeavour into the task of Bible translation, especially if Rolle's primary focus was providing as close a rendition of the original as possible (Bramley 1884: 3-5).
By preferring non-Arabic sources for loanwords, the state organs moved Malay away from Islamic modes of thinking, and made Islamic texts and their authors seem backward, thus sidelining them in national discourse.
Sara Pons-Sanz builds on her series of earlier publications, including two monographs, Analysis of the Scandinavian Loanwords in the Aldredian Glosses to the Lindifarne Gospels (Universitat de Valencia, 2000) and Norse-Derived Vocabulary in Late Old English Texts: Wulfstan's Works, a Case Study (John Benjamins, 2007), in a work of fresh and insightful analysis, and rigorous critique of received views on the canon of Norse-derived loans.
This research work has the purpose of discovering whether the similar terms analyzed in this study are cognates or rather loanwords that Turkish and Urdu have borrowed from different languages.