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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
Loanwords and Their Effect on the Classification of Swahili Nominals.
Grunthal, Riho (2012) "The evidence of Baltic loanwords in Mordvinic".
The modern German form Kind 'child' may be associated with the same root, and it had been claimed by some authors that the Slavic forms are loanwords from Germanic, which claim has been eventually rejected (SKOK s.
Their topics include tag-questions in Mandarin Chinese, focus-driven semantic reflexivity in Japanese, the Japanese particle na as a marker of the speaker's subjective judgement "here and now," wo3 and wo5 as cases of evidential particles in Cantonese, and Japanglish and katakana and a comparison with loanwords in Cantonese.
Of the early Arabic loanwords with an original /d/ we come across qozi 'judge', which has seen a regular Persian development to /z/ (cf.
The lexical changes, however, resulted in the emergence of a vernacular peculiar to the Chinese Muslims; it operated by borrowing the loanwords from Arabic and adapting them to the syntax and phonological morphemes of the Chinese language.
The majority of those words which seem to have total equivalence include loanwords from English such as 'chocolate' and 'sofa', as well as numbers.
The subtitle described the contents: The Tibetan Loanwords of Monguor and the Development of the Archaic Dialects.
Dr Durkin, whose book Borrowed Words: A History of Loanwords in English, looks at the wide variety of sources behind English, says he believes the lack of Welsh and Celtic words in the English language probably reflects "snobbery" by Anglo Saxon invaders.
However terms for collaterals and in-laws showed more Spanish influence, with Spanish loanwords predominating in some cases.
In this chapter Moskowich provides a legend for the marking conventions used for the identification of source texts, and a list of the 35 semantic fields to which lexical elements can belong (including some lesser-researched fields such as abstractions, medicine and anatomy, time or religion), and also defines the inclusion criteria of lexical elements found in the corpus, which means that only those Scandinavian loanwords are considered for analysis that are purely of Old Norse origin, that is, not filtered through any other language.