At the time of his birth at Beaumont Castle in Oxford on Christmas Eve in 1166, his parents, King Henry II of England and Queen Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine already had three surviving sons and three daughters in addition to Eleanor's two daughters from her first marriage, to King Louis VII
WHEN did Louis VII
of France marry Eleanor of Aquitaine?
BORN GREAT Garbo, US film actress, 1905, above JAMES Gandolfini, US TV actor, 1961 LANCE Armstrong, US cyclist, 1971 DIED RUSS Meyer, US film director, 2004 DOMITIAN, Roman Emperor, AD96 LOUIS VII
, King of France, 1180
Although the Fleur-de-Lis was from time immemorial used in ornamentation of crowns and scepters, it seems to have been first formally adopted as the Arms of Royalty in France by Louis VII
, called Lejeune, in 1147.
This material is in Hebrew, but it clearly describes, assesses, and interprets conversations which took place in the vernacular between the Jews of Blois, between Jews of different communities, between Jews and Christian lords, including King Louis VII
, and between Christians themselves.
Turner succeeds in placing Eleanor at the center of a century's worth of political and administrative activity dominated by the towering figures of Henry II, Richard I, and John and their perpetual confrontation with the Capetian kings Louis VII
(Eleanor's first husband) and Philip II, he interprets her activity, especially before 1176 (when she was imprisoned by Henry II for inciting the rebellion of their sons), as unproductive, impulsive, and even nefarious, even though most of these interpretations are speculations based on very thin evidence.
James, a list that also included Louis's son, Louis VII