All large (informal) groups in angiosperms such as magnoliids, monocots, basal eudicots, rosids and asterids show a patchy image with both positive and negative observations.
Amborellales 1 1 Nymphaeales 3 2 Austrobaileyales 3 2 Chloranthales 1 1 Magnoliids Cannellales 2 Piperales 5 3 Laurales 7 2 1 Magnoliales 6 3 1 Monocots Acorales 1 Alismatales 13 2 Petrosaviales 1 Dioscoreales 5 2 Pandanales 5 2 Liliales 10 4 Asparagales (incl.
1), it becomes clear that the fin-winged condition is most prevalent among Eudicots, but occurs occasionally in Magnoliids (Hernandiaceae: Illigera), and monocots (e.
Hernandiaeeae This Lauralean family is the only member of the Magnoliids sensu APG (2003) that has winged fruits.
This was a strong argument for the later origin of "higher" dicots than magnoliids (and monocots).
Flowering plants, dicotyledons: Magnoliid, hamamelid, and caryophyllid families.
Therefore, staminodes will have different positions and functions in acyclic magnoliids, polysymmetric rosids, or zygomorphic asterids.
In the magnoliids the staminodes have multiple functions related to pollination, such as attracting and directing pollinators by their color, odor, food supply, and secretions, protecting the ovary against predation, effecting pollination or preventing selfing by their position or by movements, or providing shelter and warmth (Endress, 1984, 1994; Thien et al.
Apart from magnoliid fossils having inner and outer staminodes, there is an abundance of eudicots having one whorl of sterile stamens.
2003) and sister to four magnoliid
groups (Canellales, Piperales, Magnoliales, Laurales) (Davis et al.