, a Jewish cultural critic and doctor from Budapest, had popularised the concept of 'Entartung' (degeneracy) as far back as the 1890s.
The major proponent of degeneration theory in the 1890s was the German polymath Max Nordau
All the founding fathers of Zionism -- Theodor Herzl, Max Nordau
, Chaim Weizmann, Ze'ev Jabotinsky and the rest -- were convinced atheists.
He was supported by Max Nordau
, a man who had already established himself as an avant-garde writer of repute as well as being a physician, publicist, and a brilliant orator.
In his chapter "Diothu Ciniocha, Meascadh Fola agus Cros-Siolru" (Racial annihilation, mixing of blood, and cross-breeding), O Conchubhair brings together, among others, Francis Galton, Robert Knox, Henri Gaidoz, Max Nordau
Much more to her taste was Wilde's peer, the "vagabond" poet Verlaine, as Max Nordau
had labeled him in his notorious 1892 breviary Degeneration.
Similarly, east of the Rhine, Max Nordau
, the high priest of degeneration theory, also clamored for a "new muscle Jew.
4) Max Nordau
, Degenerescence, 2 vols, (Paris: Alcan, 1894)--in Pessoa's time still the only French version of Nordau's Entartung, 2 vols (Berlin: Drucker, 1892-93).
Zionist Max Nordau
, popularized a theory called muskeljudentum, or muscular Judaism, advocating physical exercise and a strengthening of the Jewish race.
The theoretical terrain is also expanded, with references to Frantz Fanon and Max Nordau
and the formation of the concept of nation as an organic body.
His hostility to his times and his fervent spirituality had already provoked the prolific litterateur Max Nordau
to include a full chapter on "Tolstoism" in that infamous diatribe against the artistic and intellectual movements of the late nineteenth century entitled Entartung (1893), published in English as Degeneration (1895).
One relatively small but important contribution that can be traced to Shaftesbury is the theme of the early Zionist leaders Max Nordau
and Theodor Herzl: "a land of no people for a people with no land.