I have heard of many things that redound to the credit of the priesthood, but the most notable matter that occurs to me now is the devotion one of the mendicant orders
showed during the prevalence of the cholera last year.
They discuss governmental, judicial, religious, and familial sources; the estini; urban planning and physical structures; public health; the regulation of food and sumptuary laws; economy and demography; bankers, financial institutions, and politics; civic institutions; conflicts; government; the ruling classes; the church, civic religion, and civic identity; confraternities and civil society; mendicant orders
and the repression of heresy; the university; vernacular language and literature; literary culture; miniaturists, painters, and goldsmiths; and art and patronage.
Hawkins gives us a vivid reconstruction of the experience of religious life in Florence, from annual baptisms in San Giovanni, to the typical parish chapel serving thirty or forty families, the naves of churches used more like public squares, and the impact of papal reforms, mendicant orders
and lay confraternities on religious devotion.
Jesuits, for example, are not friars, like the four mendicant orders
of men: Augustinians (including Augustinian Recollects), Carmelites, Dominicans, and Franciscans.
Yuichi Akae's contribution to Brepolss Sermo series sets out to clarify and detail the systems constructed by the mendicant orders
to support their preaching ministry, in particular that of the Austin friars in fourteenth-century England.
The history of the admission and permanence of Mendicant Orders
in the University represents a facet of the history of tensions and accommodations in a new society based on new values and recomposed from new orders.
He suggests that the emergence in the 13th century of the mendicant orders
of Franciscan, Dominican and Beguine communities means that Christianity could be compatible with city life.
While it would have been unheard of in any case for a woman to earn a doctorate, another development also worked to her exclusion: university theological faculties, many run by the new Mendicant orders
(Franciscans and Dominicans), also required ordination.
While the two mendicant orders
shared fundamental goals in common (leading on occasion to fraternal infighting), Cannon also brings out differences of emphasis.
The book is divided into two parts: a chronological survey in three chapters tracing the development of the mendicant orders
in Ireland, and a consideration in seven chapters of discrete aspects of the mendicants' lives and ministries.
Both scholars argued that the women's religious movement was almost globally reformed within the ranks of the fledgling mendicant orders
and the beguine movement.
MS 3, folios 238-240 (see above) draws upon it but does not mention the founding of the mendicant orders