Emperor Michael VIII
, Palaiologos, was very fortunate to be the first of his dynasty to rule the Byzantine empire from Constantinople, its traditional capital.
The Second Council of Lyon (1272-1274) was presided over by Pope Gregory X and was convened to act on a papal call for another crusade to recapture the Holy Land and a pledge by the new Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII
Palaiologos to reunite the Eastern Church with the West.
A few months after the recovery of Constantinople, in December 1261, Michael VIII
faced a popular revolt in Zegynoi, in the frontier region south east of Nicaea (35).
On another note, intriguingly, the author calls Michael VIII
Angelov also commends the historian George Pachymeres for his accurate criticism of corruption under Michael VIII
The first council involved Emperor Michael VIII
of Constantinople, who in 1261 captured the city back from the Latins who had taken it over in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade.
The Palaeologan restoration under Michael VIII
revealed the continuing weakness of the Empire.