And yet, since Justin does not impute these views--erroneous, in his opinion--to either Trypho or his teachers (or to any of their coreligionists, for that matter), we are left wondering whether "they" refers to Jews or, as more scholars are inclined to think, to Christians of a Monarchian
The institution of monarchy was legitimated by the monarchical episcopate that, no doubt, made equal appeal to a monarchian
vision of God or Christ.
As a Monarchian
theologian, Callistus was looking for the ultimate principle in the godhead from which all lesser beings or persons were derived just as Elagabus could find that principle in the cult of Sol Invictus.
Despite his monarchian
stress the supremacy of God the Father, he did not consider the merits of other monotheistic traditions such as Judaism and Islam - his spirit of inclusiveness stopped short of non-Christian religions and atheists.
The word homoousios, at its first appearance in the middle of the third century, was therefore clearly connected with the theology of a Sabellian or monarchian
But given his monarchian
conception of God, less than God is not God at all.