The regulation of valvular and vascular sclerosis by osteogenic morphogens
Regeneration of articular cartilage surface: Morphogens
, cells, and extracellular matrix scaffolds.
A plethora of heterotypic signals is able to induce EMT in cancer cells, including transforming growth factor-[beta]1 (TGF-[beta]1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines, and morphogens
such as Wnt, Notch, and Sonic hedgehog (Shh).
This has given rise to the concept of morphogens
and morphostats that govern growth.
Role of Morphogens
in Neural Crest Cell Determination.
are locally produced molecules that act over long distances in tissues to control the pattern of gene expression.
Several factors including hypertension, inflammation, oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), stress, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and a high calcium-phosphorous ion product (Ca x P) can influence and transform vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) into osteocyte-like cellular elements through the transcription of osteochondrogenic morphogens
The spread of their morphogens
through epithelium promotes development (2,3).
are associated with MPs shed from the plasma membrane of apoptotic stimulated T cells.
Their study not only demonstrates a mechanism, which is likely to be widely relevant in vertebrate development, but also provides confidence that chemicals called morphogens
, which control these patterns, can be used in regenerative medicine to differentiate stem cells into tissue.
Genes induced by P4 and further stimulated by IFNT in uterine LE/sGE include: i) morphogens
(GRP, IRF6); ii) proteases (CTSL); iii) protease inhibitors (CST3); iv) mediators of cell migration and adhesion including SPP1, galectin 15 (LGALS15), periostin (POSTN) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1); v) hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1A and HI[F.
During development, the body uses differing concentrations of morphogens
, similar to activin, to direct precursors to become the various mature cells discussed above.