Lists of Facts > Muscles of the Human Body

Muscles of the Human Body

Muscle(s)
Origin
Insertion
Innervation
Main Action(s)
Abductor digiti minimi of foot
Medial and lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular
septa
Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe
Lateral plantar nerve (S2 and S3)
Abducts and flexes 5th toe
Abductor digiti minimi of hand
Pisiform, pisohamate ligament, flexor retinaculum
Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)
Abducts 5th toe
Abductor hallucis
Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis
Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st toe
Medial plantar nerve (S2 and S3)
Abducts and flexes 1st toe (great toe, hallux)
Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Recurrent branch of median nerve (C8 and T1)
Abducts thumb and helps oppose it
Abductor pollicis longus
Posterior surfaces of ulna, radius, interosseous membrane
Base of 1st metacarpal
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Abducts longus of thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint
Adductor brevis
Body and inferior ramus of pubis
Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur
Obturator nerve (L2–L4), branch of anterior division
Adducts thigh and to some extent flexes it
Adductor hallucis
Oblique head: bases of metatarsals 2–4
Transverse head: plantar ligaments of metatarsophalangeal
joints
Tendons of both heads attach to lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe
Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve (S2 and S3)
Adducts great toe; assists in maintaining transverse arch of foot
Adductor longus
Body of pubic bone inferior to pubic crest
Middle third of linea aspera of femur
Obturator nerve, branch of anterior division (L2–L4)
Adducts thigh
Adductor magnus
Proximal part: inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium
Ischial tuberosity
Proximal part: gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line
Adductor tubercle of femur
Proximal part: obturator nerve (L2–L4), branches of posterior division
Tibial part of sciatic nerve (L4)
Adducts thigh
Proximal part: flexes thigh
Extends thigh
Adductor minimus
Inferior pubic ramus
Medial lip, uppermost linea aspera of femur
Obturator nerve (L2–L4)
Adducts and rotates thigh laterally
Adductor pollicis
Oblique head: bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, adjacent carpals
Transverse head: anterior surface of body of 3rd metacarpal
Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)
Adducts thumb toward middle digit
Anconeus
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of ulna
Radial nerve (C7, C8, and T1)
Assists triceps in extending forearm; stabilizes elbow joint; abducts ulna during pronation
Articularis cubiti
Distal portion of posterior aspect of shaft of humerus
Posterior fibrous capsule of elbow joint
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Retracts posterior joint capsule during extension of elbow
Articularis genus
Distal portion of anterior aspect of shaft of femur
Synovial membrane of suprapatellar bursa of knee joint
Femoral nerve (L2–L4)
Retracts synovial membrane during extension of knee
Arytenoid, transverse and oblique
Posterolateral border of 1 arytenoid cartilage
Posterolateral border of opposite arytenoid cartilage
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus [CN X])
Closes intercartilaginous portion of rima glottidis
Auricularis, anterior, posterior, and superior
Epicranial aponeurosis and mastoid part of temporal bone
Auricle (external ear)
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Protraction, retraction, elevation of auricle on side of head
Biceps brachii
Short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula
Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm by bicipital aponeurosis
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Supinates forearm and, when supine, flexes forearm
Biceps femoris
Long head: ischial tuberosity
Short head: linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur
Lateral side of head of fibula; tendon split at this site by fibular collateral ligament of knee
Long head: tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, and S2)
Short head: common fibular (peroneal) division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, and S2)
Flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed; extends thigh (e.g., when starting to walk)
Brachialis
Distal two thirds of anterior surface of humerus
Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6)
Flexes forearm in all positions
Brachioradialis
Proximal two thirds of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Lateral surface of distal end of radius
Radial nerve (C5–C7)
Flexes forearm
Buccinator
Mandible, pterygomandibular raphe, and alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible
Angle of mouth
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Presses cheek against molar teeth, thereby aiding chewing; expels air from oral cavity, as when a wind instrument is played; draws mouth to one side when acting unilaterally
Bulbospongiosus
Male: median raphe, ventral surface of bulb of penis, and perineal body
Female: perineal body
Male: corpora spongiosum and cavernosa and fascia of bulb of penis
Female: fascia of corpora cavernosa
Deep branch of perineal nerve, a branch of pudendal nerve (S2, S3, and S4)
Works with external anal sphincter to support/fix perineal body
Male: compresses bulb of penis to expel last drops of urine or semen; assists erection by pushing blood into body of penis and compressing outflow veins
Female: “sphincter” of vagina; assists in erection of clitoris
Ciliary
Scleral spur
Meridional, radial, and circular fibers intrinsic to ciliary body
Parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve and ciliary ganglion
Relieve tension on lens of eye, allowing it to become more convex for near vision
Coccygeus (ischiococcygeus)
Ischial spine
Inferior end of sacrum
Branches of S4 and S5 nerves
Forms small part of pelvic diaphragm that supports pelvic viscera; flexes coccyx
Coracobrachialis
Tip of coracoid process of scapula humerus
Middle third of medial surface of (C5–C7)
Musculocutaneous nerve
Helps to flex and adduct arm
Corrugator supercilii
Medial end of superciliary arch of frontal bone
Skin above middle of eyebrow
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Draws eyebrow medially and inferiorly, producing vertical wrinkles above nose
Cremaster
Internal oblique muscle and inguinal ligament
Spermatic cord and tunica vaginalis
Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve (L1–L2)
Elevation of testis
Cricopharyngeus
Posterolateral cricoid cartilage on one side
Posterolateral cricoid cartilage of other side
Vagus (CN X)
Serves as upper esophageal sphincter
Cricothyroid
Anterolateral part of cricoid cartilage
Inferior margin and inferior horn of thyroid cartilage
External laryngeal nerve
Stretches and tenses vocal fold
Deep transverse perineal muscle
Internal surface of ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity
Median raphe, perineal body, and external anal sphincter
Deep branch of perineal nerve, a branch of pudendal nerve (S2, S3, and S4)
Support and fix perineal body (pelvic floor) to support abdominopelvic viscera and resist increased intraabdominal pressure
Deltoid
Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula
Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Anterior part: flexes and medially rotates arm
Middle part: abducts arm
Posterior part: extends and laterally rotates arm
Depressor labii inferioris/anguli oris
Anterolateral aspect of body of mandible
Lower lip/angle of mouth
Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve (CN VII)
Depresses and/or everts lower lip; pulls angle of mouth and modiolus inferiorly
Depressor septi nasi
Incisor fossa of maxilla
Mobile part of nasal septum
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Helps to dilate nostril during deep inspiration and depresses nasal septum
Diaphragm
Xiphoid process, inferior 6 costal cartilages and adjoining ribs, arcuate ligaments, anterior longitudinal ligaments and bodies and discs of lumbar vertebrae 1–3
Central tendon of diaphragm
Phrenic nerve (C3–C5)
Diaphragm descends, decreasing intrathoracic pressure and thus resulting in inhalation and assisting return of venous blood to heart
Digastric
Anterior belly: digastric fossa of mandible
Posterior belly: mastoid notch of temporal bone
Intermediate tendon to body and greater horn of hyoid bone
Anterior belly: mylohyoid nerve, a branch of inferior alveolar nerve
Posterior belly: facial nerve (CN VII)
Depresses mandible; raises hyoid bone and steadies it during swallowing and speaking
Dorsal interossei (4 muscles) of foot
Adjacent sides of metatarsals 1–5
1st: medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd toe
2nd–4th: lateral sides of 2nd–4th toes
Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Abduct toes (2–4) and flex metatarsophalangeal joints
Dorsal interossei 1–4 of hand
Adjacent sides of 2 metacarpals (bipennate muscles)
Extensor expansions and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2–4
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Abduct digits from axial line and act with lumbricals to flex metacarpophalangeal joints and extend interphalangeal joints
Erector spinae
Arises by a broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacral and inferior lumbar unispinous
processes, and supraspinous ligament
Iliocostalis—lumborum, thoracis, cervicis: fibers run superiorly to angles of lower ribs and cervical transverse processes Longissimus—thoracis, cervicis, capitis: fibers run superiorly to ribs between tubercles and angles, to transverse processes in thoracic and cervical regions, and to mastoid process of temporal bone Spinalis—thoracis, cervicis, capitis fibers run superiorly to spinous processes in upper thoracic region and to skull
Posterior rami of spinal nerves
Acting bilaterally, extend vertebral column and head; as back is flexed, control movement by gradually lengthening fibers; acting unilaterally, laterally bend vertebral column
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Base of 3rd metacarpal bone
Deep branch of radial nerve (C7, C8)
Extend and abduct hand at wrist joint
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Base of 2nd metacarpal bone
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Extend and abduct hand at wrist joint
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
Base of 5th metacarpal bone
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends and adducts hand at wrist joint
Extensor digiti minimi
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extensor expansion of 5th digit
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends 5th digit at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Extensor digitorum
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extensor expansions of medial 4 digits
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends medial 4 digits at metacarpophalangeal joints; extends hand at wrist joint
Extensor digitorum
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extensor expansions of medial 4 digits
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends medial 4 digits at metacarpophalangeal joints; extends hand at wrist joint
Extensor digitorum brevis
Anteriormost portions of lateral and superior surfaces of calcaneus
Lateral side of long extensor tendons, with slips to proximal phalanges of 2nd–4th toes
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1)
Assists in extending middle 3 toes
Extensor digitorum longus
Lateral condyle of tibia and superior three fourths of medial surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
Middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1)
Extends lateral 4 digits and dorsiflexes ankle
Extensor hallucis brevis
Anteriormost portion of superior surface of calcaneus
Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of great toe (hallux)
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1)
Extends great toe
Extensor hallucis longus
Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe (hallux)
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1)
Extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle
Extensor indicis
Posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
Extensor expansion of 2nd digit
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends 2nd digit and helps to extend wrist
Extensor pollicis brevis
Posterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal joint
Extensor pollicis longus
Posterior surface of middle third of ulna and interosseous membrane
Base of distal phalanx of thumb
Posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve
Extends distal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
External anal sphincter
Skin and fascia surrounding anus and coccyx via anococcygeal ligament
Perineal body
Inferior anal nerve
Closes anal canal; works with bulbospongiosus to support and fix perineal body
External intercostal
Inferior border of ribs, from tubercle to costochondral junction
Superior border of ribs below
Intercostal nerves
Elevate ribs (when upper ribs are fixed by scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles)
External oblique
External surfaces of 5th–12th ribs
Linea alba, pubic tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest
Thoracoabdominal nerves (inferior 6 thoracic nerves) and subcostal nerve
Compress and support abdominal viscera; flex and rotate trunk
External urethral sphincter
Internal surface of ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity
Surrounds urethra; in males, also ascends anterior aspect of prostate; in females, some fibers also enclose vagina (urethrovaginal sphincter)
Deep branch of perineal, nerve a branch of pudendal nerve (S2–S4)
Compresses urethra to maintain urinary continence; in females, urethrovaginal sphincter portion also compresses vagina
Fibularis (peroneus) brevis
Inferior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula
Dorsal surface of tuberosity on on lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal
Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
Fibularis (peroneus) longus
Head and superior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula
Base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
Fibularis (peroneus) tertius
Inferior third of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
Dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5, S1)
Dorsiflexes ankle and aids in eversion of foot
Flexor carpi radialis
Medial epicondyle of humerus
Base of 2nd metacarpal bone
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Flexes and abducts hand (at wrist) radially
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus
Ulnar head: olecranon and posterior border of ulna
Pisiform bone, hook of hamate bone, and 5th metacarpal bone
Ulnar nerve (C7, C8)
Flexes and adducts hand (at wrist) ulnarly
Flexor digiti minimi brevis of foot
Base of 5th metatarsal
Base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
Superficial branch of lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit, thereby assisting with its flexion
Flexor digiti minimi brevis of hand
Hook of hamate and flexor flexor retinaculum
Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit
Flexor digitorum brevis
Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular septa
Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Medial plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Flexes lateral 4 digits
Flexor digitorum longus
Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line and by a broad tendon to fibula
Bases of distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Tibial nerve (S2, S3)
Flexes lateral 4 digits and plantarflexes ankle; supports longitudinal arch of foot
Flexor digitorum profundus
Proximal three fourths of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane
Bases of distal phalanges of medial 4 digits
Medial part: ulnar nerve (C8, T1).
Lateral part: median nerve (C8, T1)
Flexes distal phalanges at distal interphalangeal joints of medial 4 digits; assists with flexion of hand
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Humeroulnar head: medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, and coronoid process of ulna Radial head: superior half of anterior border of radius
Bodies of middle phalanges of medial 4 digits
Median nerve (C7, C8, T1)
Flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalangeal joints of medial 4 digits; acting more strongly, also flexes proximal phalanges at metacarpophalangeal joints and hand at wrist
Flexor hallucis brevis
Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms
Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Medial plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Flexor hallucis longus
Inferior two thirds of posterior surface of fibula and inferior part of interosseous membrane
Base of distal phalanx of great toe (hallux)
Tibial nerve (S2, S3)
Flexes great toe at both joints and weakly plantarflexes ankle; supports medial longitudinal arches of foot
Flexor pollicis brevis
Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Recurrent branch of median nerve (C8, T1)
Flexes thumb
Flexor pollicis longus
Anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrane
Base of distal phalanx of thumb
Anterior interosseous nerve from median (C8, T1)
Flexes phalanges of 1st digit (thumb)
Gastrocnemius
Lateral head: lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur
Medial head: popliteal surface of femur superior to medial
condyle
Posterior surface of calcaneus by calcaneal tendon
Tibial nerve (S1, S2)
Plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended, raises heel during walking, flexes leg at knee joint
Gemelli, superior and inferior
Superior: ischial spine
Inferior: ischial tuberosity
Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) of femur
Superior gemellus: nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1)
Inferior gemellus: nerve to quadratus femoris (L5, S1)
Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh; keep femoral head steady in acetabulum
Genioglossus
Superior part of mental spine of mandible
Dorsum of tongue and body of hyoid bone
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Depresses tongue; posterior part pulls tongue anteriorly for protrusion
Geniohyoid
Inferior mental spine of mandible
Body of hyoid bone
C1 through hypoglossal nerve
Pulls hyoid bone anterosuperiorly; shortens floor of mouth; widens pharynx
Gluteus maximus
Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament
Most fibers end in iliotibial tract that inserts into lateral condyle of tibia; some fibers insert on gluteal tuberosity of femur
Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Extends thigh (especially from flexed position) and assists in its lateral rotation; steadies thigh and assists in rising from sitting position
Gluteus medius
External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines
Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur
Superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)
Abducts and medially rotates thigh; keeps pelvis level when opposite leg is raised off ground
Gluteus minimus
External surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur
Superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)
Abducts and medially rotates thigh; keeps pelvis level when opposite leg is raised off ground
Gracilis
Body and inferior ramus of pubis
Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Obturator nerve (L2, L3)
Adducts thigh; flexes leg, helps rotate it medially
Hyoglossus
Body and greater horn of hyoid bone
Side and inferior aspect of tongue
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Depresses and retracts tongue
Iliacus
Iliac crest, superior two thirds of iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, and anterior sacroiliac ligaments
Lesser trochanter of femur and shaft inferior to it, and to psoas major tendon
Femoral nerve (L2–L4)
Flexes thigh and stabilizes hip joint; acts with psoas major
Inferior constrictor of pharynx
Oblique line of thyroid cartilage and side of cricoid cartilage
Median raphe of pharynx
Cranial root of accessory nerve (CN XI) branches of external and recurrent laryngeal
nerves of vagus (CN X)
Constricts wall of pharynx during swallowing
Inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue
Root of tongue and body of hyoid bone
Apex of tongue
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Curls tip of tongue inferiorly and shortens tongue
Inferior oblique
Anterior part of floor of orbit
Sclera deep to lateral rectus muscle
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Abducts, elevates, and laterally rotates eyeball
Inferior rectus
Common tendinous ring
Sclera just posterior to cornea
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Depresses, adducts, and rotates eyeball medially
Infraspinatus
Infraspinous fossa of scapula
Middle facet on greater tubercle of humerus
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Laterally rotates arm; helps to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula
Innermost intercostal
Inner surfaces of ribs, from angles to costochondral junction
Superior borders of ribs below
Intercostal nerves
Probably depress ribs
Internal intercostal
Inferior borders of ribs
Superior border of ribs below
Intercostal nerves
Depress ribs
Internal oblique
Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior two thirds of iliac crest, and lateral half of inguinal ligament
Inferior borders of 10th–12th ribs, linea alba, and pecten pubis through conjoint tendon
Thoracoabdominal (anterior rami of inferior 6 thoracic) and 1st lumbar nerves
Compresses and supports abdominal viscera; flexes and rotates trunk
Interspinales
Superior surfaces of spinous processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae
Inferior surfaces of spinous processes of vertebrae superior to vertebrae of origin
Posterior rami of spinal nerves
Aid in extension and rotation of vertebral column
Intertransversarii
Transverse processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae
Transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae
Posterior and anterior rami of spinal nerves
Aid in lateral bending of vertebral column; acting bilaterally, stabilize vertebral column
Ischiocavernosus
Internal surface of ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity
Crus of penis or clitoris
Deep branch of perineal nerve, a branch of pudendal nerve (S2–S4)
Maintains erection of penis or clitoris by compressing outflow veins and pushing blood into body of penis or clitoris
Lateral cricoarytenoid
Arch of cricoid cartilage
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus [CN X])
Adducts vocal fold (interligamentous portion)
Lateral pterygoid
Superior head: infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of greater wing of sphenoid bone
Inferior head: lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate
Neck of mandible (pterygoid fovea); articular disc and capsule of temporomandibular joint
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) through lateral pterygoid nerve from anterior trunk, which enters its deep surface
Acting together, protrude mandible and depress chin; acting alone and alternately, produce side-to-side movements of mandible
Lateral rectus
Common tendinous ring
Sclera just posterior to cornea
Abducent nerve (CN VI)
Abducts eyeball
Latissimus dorsi
Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoraco - lumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs
Floor of intertubercular groove of humerus
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6–C8)
Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; raises body toward arms during climbing
Levator anguli oris
Canine fossa of maxilla
Orbicularis oris and skin at angle of mouth
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Raises angle of mouth, as in smiling
Levator ani (pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and iliococcygeus)
Body of pubis, tendinous arch of obturator fascia, and ischial spine
Perineal body, coccyx, anococcygeal ligament, walls of prostate or vagina, rectum, and anal canal
Nerve to levator ani (branches of S4) and inferior anal (rectal) nerve and coccygeal plexus
Helps support pelvic viscera and resists increases in intraabdominal pressure
Levatores costarum
Tips of transverse processes of C7 and T1–T11 vertebrae
Pass inferolaterally and insert on subjacent rib between its tubercle and angle
Posterior rami of C8–T11 spinal nerves
Elevate ribs, assisting inspiration; assist with lateral bending of vertebral column
Levator labii superioris
Frontal process of maxilla and infraorbital region
Skin of upper lip and alar cartilage of nose
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Elevates lip, dilates nostril, and raises angle of mouth
Levator palpebrae superioris
Lesser wing of sphenoid bone, superior and anterior to optic canal
Tarsal plate and skin of superior (upper) eyelid
Oculomotor nerve (CN III); deep layer (superior tarsal muscle) is supplied by sympathetic fibers
Elevates superior (upper) eyelid
Levator scapulae
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1–C4 vertebrae
Superior part of medial border or scapula
Dorsal scapular (C5) and cervical (C3 and C4) nerves
Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
Levator veli palatini
Cartilage of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube and petrous part of temporal bone
Palatine aponeurosis
Cranial part of CN XI through pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (CN X) through pharyngeal plexus
Elevates soft palate during swallowing and yawning
Longus capitis
Basilar part of occipital bone
Anterior tubercles of C3–C6 transverse processes
Anterior rami of C1–C3 spinal nerves
Flexes head
Longus colli
Anterior tubercle of C1 vertebra (atlas); bodies of C1–C3 and transverse processes of C3–C6 vertebrae
Bodies of C5–T3 vertebrae, transverse processes of C3–C5 vertebrae
Anterior rami of C2–C6 spinal nerves
Flexes neck with rotation (torsion) to opposite side if acting unilaterally
Lumbricals of foot
Tendons of flexor digitorum longus
Medial aspects of bases of proximal phalanges of lateral 4 toes
Medial 1: medial plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Lateral 3: lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Flex proximal phalanges and extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Lumbricals 1 and 2 of hand
Lateral 2 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (unipennate muscles)
Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd and 3rd digits
Median nerve (C8, T1)
Flex digits at metacarpophalangeal joints and extend interphalangeal joints
Lumbricals 3 and 4 of hand
Medial 3 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (bipennate muscles)
Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 4th and 5th digits
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)
Flex digits at
metacarpophalangeal joints and extend interphalangeal joints
Masseter
Inferior border and medial surface of zygomatic arch
Lateral surface of ramus of mandible and its coronoid process
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) through masseteric nerve, which enters its deep surface
Elevates and protrudes mandible, thus closing jaws; deep fibers allow retrusion
Medial pterygoid
Deep head: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of palatine bone
Superficial head: tuberosity of maxilla
Medial surface of ramus of mandible, inferior to mandibular foramen
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) through medial pterygoid nerve
Acting bilaterally, elevates mandible, closing jaws; assists in protruding mandible; acting alone assists in protruding same side of jaw; acting alternately, produces a grinding motion
Medial rectus
Common tendinous ring
Sclera just posterior to cornea
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Adducts eyeball
Mentalis
Incisive fossa of mandible
Skin of chin
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Elevates and protrudes lower lip
Middle constrictor of pharynx
Stylohyoid ligament and superior (greater) and inferior (lesser) horns of hyoid bone
Median raphe of pharynx
Cranial root of accessory nerve (CN XI); branches of external and recurrent laryngeal nerves of vagus (CN X)
Constricts wall of pharynx during swallowing
Mylohyoid
Mylohyoid line of mandible
Raphe and body of hyoid bone
Mylohyoid nerve, a branch of inferior alveolar nerve of CN V3
Elevates hyoid bone, floor of mouth, and tongue during swallowing and speaking
Nasalis
Superior part of canine ridge of maxilla
Nasal cartilages
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Draws ala (side) of nose toward nasal septum
Obliquus capitis inferior
Spinous process of axis (C2 vertebra)
Transverse process of atlas (C1 vertebra)
Suboccipital nerve
Rotation of head at atlantoaxial joint
Obliquus capitis superior
Spinous process of atlas (C1 vertebra)
Lateral third of inferior nuchal line of occipital bone
Suboccipital nerve
Rotation of head at atlantoaxial joint
Obturator externus
Margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
Trochanteric fossa of femur
Obturator nerve (L3, L4)
Laterally rotates thigh; steadies head of femur in acetabulum
Obturator internus
Pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones
Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) of femur
Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1)
Laterally rotates extended thigh and abducts flexed thigh; steadies femoral head in acetabulum
Occipitofrontalis (occipital belly/frontal belly)
Lateral two thirds of superior nuchal line and mastoid temporal bone/epicranial aponeurosis
Epicranial aponeurosis/skin of forehead and eyebrows
Posterior branch/temporal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)
Retracts scalp/elevates eyebrows and skin of forehead
Omohyoid
Superior border of scapula near suprascapular notch
Inferior border of hyoid bone
C1–C3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis
Depresses, retracts, and steadies hyoid bone
Opponens digiti minimi
Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
Medial border of 5th metacarpal
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing digit 5 into opposition with thumb
Opponens pollicis
Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
Lateral side of 1st metacarpal
Recurrent branch of median nerve (C8, T1)
Draws 1st metacarpal bone laterally to oppose thumb toward center of palm and rotates it medially
Orbicularis oculi
Medial orbital margin, medial palpebral ligament, and lacrimal bone
Skin around margin of orbit; tarsal plate
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Closes eyelids; palpebral part closes lids gently; orbital part gently closes lids tightly
Orbicularis oris
Some fibers arise near median plane of maxilla superiorly and mandible inferiorly; others arise from deep surface of skin
Mucous membrane of lips
Facial nerve (CN VII)
As sphincter of oral opening, compresses and protrudes lips (e.g., purses them during whistling and sucking)
Palatoglossus
Palatine aponeurosis
Side of tongue
Cranial part of accessory nerve (CN XI) through pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (CN X) by way of pharyngeal plexus
Elevates posterior part of tongue and draws soft palate onto tongue
Palatopharyngeus
Hard palate and palatine aponeurosis
Lateral wall of pharynx
Cranial part of accessory nerve (CN XI) through pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (CN X) by way of pharyngeal plexus
Tenses soft palate and pulls walls Tenses soft palate and pulls walls and medially during swallowing
Palmar interossei 1–3
Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th, and 5th metacarpals (unipennate muscles)
Extensor expansions of digits and bases of proximal phalanges of 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Adduct digits toward axial line and assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
Palmaris brevis
Ulnar side of central portion of palmar aponeurosis
Skin of ulnar side of hand
Superficial ulnar nerve (T1)
Wrinkles skin on palmar side of hand
Palmaris longus
Medial epicondyle of humerus
Distal half of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
Median nerve (C7, C8)
Flexes hand (at wrist) and tightens palmar aponeurosis
Pectineus
Superior ramus of pubis
Pectineal line of femur, just inferior to lesser trochanter
Femoral nerve (L2, L3); may receive a branch from obturator nerve
Adducts and flexes thigh; assists with medial rotation of thigh
Pectoralis major
Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle.
Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
Lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
Lateral and medial pectoral nerves; clavicular head (C5, C6), sternocostal head (C7, C8, T1)
Adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly; acting alone: clavicular head flexes humerus and sternocosta lhead extends it
Pectoralis minor
3rd–5th ribs near their costal cartilages
Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
Medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall
Piriformis
Anterior surface of sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament
Superior border of greater trochanter of femur
Branches of anterior rami of S1, S2
Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
Plantar interossei 1–3
Bases and medial sides of metatarsals 3rd–5th
Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges of 3rd–5th digits
Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Adduct 2nd–4th digits and flex metatarsophalangeal joints
Plantaris
Inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament
Posterior surface of calcaneus through calcaneal tendon
Tibial nerve (S1, S2)
Weakly assists gastrocnemius in plantarflexing ankle and flexing knee
Platysma
Superficial fascia of deltoid and pectoral regions
Mandible, skin of cheek, angle of of mouth, and orbicularis oris
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Depresses mandible and tenses skin of lower face and neck
Popliteus
Lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus
Posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line
Tibial nerve (L4, L5, S1)
Weakly flexes knee and unlocks it
Posterior cricoarytenoid
Posterior surface of lamina of cricoid cartilage
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus [CN X])
Abducts vocal fold
Procerus
Aponeurosis covering bridge of nose
Skin of lower forehead between eyebrows
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Depresses medial end of eyebrow; produces transverse wrinkles over bridge of nose; produces look of concentration
Pronator quadratus
Distal fourth of anterior surface of ulna
Distal fourth of anterior surface of radius
Anterior interosseous nerve from median (C8, T1)
Pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
Pronator teres
Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
Middle of lateral surface of radius Median nerve (C6, C7)
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Pronates and flexes forearm (at elbow)
Psoas major
Sides of T12–L5 vertebrae and discs between them; transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae
Lesser trochanter of femur
Anterior rami of lumbar nerves(L1–L3)
Flexes and rotates thigh laterally at hip joint; when thigh is fixed, flexes lumbar vertebrae anteriorly and laterally
Psoas minor
Sides of T12–L1 vertebrae and intervertebral discs
Pectineal line, iliopectineal eminence via iliopectineal arch
Anterior rami of lumbar nerves (L1, L2)
Acts conjointly with psoas major to flex thigh at hip joint and stabilize this joint
Pyramidalis
Crest of pubis
Lower portion of linea alba
Subcostal nerve
Tenses linea alba
Quadratus femoris
Lateral border of ischial tuberosity
Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and area inferior to it
Nerve to quadratus femoris (L5, S1)
Laterally rotates thigh; steadies femoral head in acetabulum
Quadratus lumborum
Medial half of inferior border of 12th rib and tips of lumbar transverse processes
Iliolumbar ligament and internal lip of iliac crest
Ventral branches of T12 and L1–L4 nerves
Extends and laterally flexes vertebral column; fixes 12th rib during inspiration
Quadratus plantae
Medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus
Posterolateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus
Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral 4 digits
Rectus abdominis
Pubic symphysis and pubic crest
Xiphoid process and 5th–7th costal cartilages
Thoracoabdominal nerves (anterior rami of inferior 6 thoracic nerves)
Flexes trunk (lumbar vertebrae) and compresses abdominal viscera (indirectly opposing diaphragm)
Rectus capitis anterior
Anterior surface of lateral mass of C1 vertebra (atlas)
Base of skull, just anterior to occipital condyle
Branches from loop between C1 and C2 spinal nerves
Flexes head at atlantooccipital joint
Rectus capitis lateralis
Transverse process of C1 vertebra (atlas)
Jugular process of occipital bone
Branches from loop between C1 and C2 spinal nerves
Flexes head and helps to stabilize it
Rectus capitis posterior major
Spinous process of C2 vertebra (axis)
Middle of inferior nuchal line of occipital bone
Suboccipital nerve
Extends head at atlantooccipital joint
Rectus capitis posterior minor
Dorsal tubercle of C1 vertebra (atlas)
Medial third of inferior nuchal line of occipital bone
Suboccipital nerve
Extends head at atlantooccipital joint
Rectus femoris
Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium superior to acetabulum
Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
Femoral nerve (L2–L4)
Extend leg at knee joint; rectus femoris also steadies hip joint and helps iliopsoas to flex thigh
Rhomboid minor and major
Minor: nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae
Major: spinous processes of T2–T5 vertebrae
Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
Dorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)
Retract scapula and rotate it to depress glenoid cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall
Risorius
Platysma and fascia of masseter
Orbicularis oris, skin of corner of mouth, modiolus
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Retracts angle of mouth, lengthening rima oris
Salpingopharyngeus
Cartilaginous part of auditory tube
Blends with palatopharyngeus
Cranial root of accessory nerve through pharyngeal branch of vagus and pharyngeal plexus
Elevates (shortens and widens) pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking
Sartorius
Anterior superior iliac spine and superior part of notch inferior to it
Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Femoral nerve (L2, L3)
Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flexes leg at knee joint
Scalenus anterior
Transverse processes of C4–C6 vertebrae
1st rib
Cervical spine nerves (C4–C6)
Elevates 1st rib; flexes and rotates neck laterally
Scalenus medius
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C4–C6 vertebrae
Superior surface of 1st rib, posterior groove for subclavian artery
Anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves
Flexes neck laterally; elevates 1st rib during forced inspiration
Scalenus posterior
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C4–C6 vertebrae
External border of 2nd rib
Anterior rami of cervical nerves C7 and C8
Flexes neck laterally; elevates 2nd rib during forced inspiration
Semimembranosus
Ischial tuberosity
Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia; reflected attachment forms oblique popliteal ligament (to lateral femoral condyle)
Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Extends thigh; flexes leg and, when knee is flexed, rotates it medially; when hip is flexed and knee is extended, can raise trunk against gravity
Semitendinosus
Ischial tuberosity
Medial surface of superior part of tibia
Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Extends thigh; flexes leg and, when knee is flexed, rotates it medially; when hip is flexed and knee is extended, can raise trunk against gravity
Serratus anterior
External surfaces of lateral parts of 1st–8th ribs
Anterior surface of medial border of scapula
Long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7)
Protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall; rotates scapula
Serratus posterior inferior
Spinous processes of vertebrae
Inferior borders of 8th–12th ribs near their angles
Anterior rami of 9th–12th thoracic spinal nerves
Depresses ribs
Serratus posterior superior
Ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7–T3 vertebrae
Superior borders of 2nd–4th ribs
2nd–5th intercostal nerves
Elevates ribs
Soleus
Posterior aspect of head of fibula, superior fourth of posterior surface of fibula, soleal line and medial border of tibia
Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Tibial nerve (S1, S2)
Plantarflexes ankle independently of position of knee and steadies leg on foot
Splenius capitis et cervicis
Arises from inferior half of ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7–T3 of T4 vertebrae
Splenius capitis: fibers run superolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral third of superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Splenius cervicis: posterior tubercles of transverse processes
of C1–C3 or C4 vertebrae
Posterior rami of spinal nerves
Acting alone, laterally bend and rotate head to side of active muscles; acting together, extend head and neck
Stapedius
Internal walls of pyramidal eminence of posterior wall of tympanic cavity
Neck of stapes
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Damps vibrations of stapes reflexively in response to loud noise
Sternocleidomastoid
Lateral surface of mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral half of superior nuchal line
Sternal head: anterior surface of manubrium of sternum
Clavicular head: superior surface of medial third of clavicle
Spinal root of accessory nerve (CN XI) (motor) and C2 and C3 nerves (pain and proprioception)
Tilts head to one side, i.e., laterally; flexes neck and rotates it so face is turned superiorly toward opposite side; acting together, the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles flex neck so chin is thrust forward
Sternohyoid
Manubrium of sternum and medial end of clavicle
Body of hyoid bone
C1–C3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis
Depresses hyoid bone after it has been elevated during swallowing
Sternothyroid
Posterior surface of manubrium of sternum
Oblique line of thyroid cartilage
C2 and C3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis
Depresses hyoid bone and larynx
Styloglossus
Styloid process and stylohyoid ligament
Side and inferior aspect of tongue
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Retracts tongue and draws it up to create a trough for swallowing
Stylohyoid
Styloid process of temporal bone
Body of hyoid bone
Cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII)
Elevates and retracts hyoid bone, thereby elongating floor of mouth
Stylopharyngeus
Styloid process of temporal bone
Posterior and superior borders of thyroid cartilage with palatopharyngeus
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Elevates (shortens and widens) pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking
Subclavius
Junction of 1st rib and its costal cartilage
Inferior surface of middle third of clavicle
Nerve to subclavius (C5, C6)
Anchors and depresses clavicle
Subcostal
Internal surfaces of lower ribs near their angles
Superior borders of 2nd or 3rd ribs below
Intercostal nerves
Elevates ribs
Subscapularis
Subscapular fossa
Lesser tubercle of humerus
Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5–C7)
Rotates arm medially and adducts it; helps to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity
Superficial transverse perineal muscle
Ramus of ischium
Perineal body
Deep branch of perineal nerve, a branch of pudendal nerve (S2–S4)
Supports and fixes perineal body (pelvic floor) to support abdominopelvic viscera and to resist increased intraabdominal pressure
Superior constrictor of pharynx
Pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, posterior end of mylohyoid line of mandible and side of tongue
Median raphe of pharynx and pharyngeal tubercle on basilar part of occipital bone
Cranial root of accessory nerve through pharyngeal branch of vagus and pharyngeal plexus
Constricts wall of pharynx during swallowing
Superior longitudinal muscle of tongue
Submucous fibrous layer and median fibrous septum
Margins of tongue and mucous membrane
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Curls tip and sides of tongue superiorly and shortens tongue
Superior oblique
Body of sphenoid bone
Its tendon passes through a fibrous ring or trochlea, changes its direction, and inserts into sclera deep to superiorrectus muscle
Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Abducts, depresses, and rotates eyeball medially
Superior rectus
Common tendinous ring
Sclera just posterior to cornea
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Elevates, adducts, and rotates
eyeball medially
Supinator
Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral and anular ligaments, supinator fossa, and crest of ulna
Lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius
Deep branch of radial nerve (C5, C6)
Supinates forearm (i.e., rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly)
Supraspinatus
Supraspinous fossa of scapula
Superior facet on greater tubercle of humerus
Suprascapular nerve (C4–C6)
Initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles
Temporalis
Floor of temporal fossa and deep surface of temporal fascia
Tip and medial surface of coronoid process and anterior border of ramus of mandible
Deep temporal branches of mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Elevates mandible, closing jaws; its posterior fibers retract mandible after protrusion (SEE ALSO masseter)
Tensor fascia latae
Anterior superior iliac spine and anterior part of iliac crest
Iliotibial tract that attaches to lateral condyle of tibia
Superior gluteal (L4, by L5)
Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh; helps to keep knee extended; steadies trunk on thigh
Tensor tympani
Canal for tensor tympani of petrous part of temporal bone and cartilage of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
Handle of malleus
Branch of mandibular nerve (CN V3) by otic ganglion
Tenses tympanic membrane to damp excessive vibration caused by loud noise
Tensor veli palatini
Scaphoid fossa of medial pterygoid plate, spine of sphenoid bone, and cartilage of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
Palatine aponeurosis
Medial pterygoid nerve (a branch of mandibular nerve—CN V3) by otic ganglion
Tenses soft palate andopens mouth of auditory tube during swallowing and yawning
Teres major
Dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula
Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
Lower subscapular nerve (C6, C7)
Adducts and medially rotates arm
Teres minor
Superior part of lateral border of scapula
Inferior facet on greater tubercle of humerus
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Laterally rotate arm; help to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula
Thyroarytenoid
Posterior surface of thyroid cartilage
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Relaxes vocal fold
Thyrohyoid
Oblique line of thyroid cartilage
Inferior border of body and greater horn of hyoid bone
C1 by hypoglossal nerve
Depresses hyoid bone and elevates larynx
Tibialis anterior
Lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia and interosseous membrane
Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve (L4, L5)
Dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot
Tibialis posterior
Interosseous membrane, posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, and posterior surface of fibula
Tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform,and cuboid and bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals
Tibial nerve (L4, L5)
Plantarflexes ankle and inverts foot
Transverse muscle of tongue
Median fibrous septum
Fibrous tissue at margins of tongue
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Narrows and elongates tongue; acts simultaneously to protrude tongue
Transversospinalis
Transverse processes: Semispinalis arises from transverse
processes of C4–T12 vertebrae
Multifidus arises from sacrum and ilium, transverse processes of T1–T3, and articular processes of C4–C7 Rotatores arise from transverse processes of vertebrae; are most highly developed in thoracic region
Spinous processes: Semispinalis—thoracis, cervicis, and capitis: fibers run superomedially to occipital bone and spinous processes in thoracic and cervical regions, spanning 4–6 segments
Multifidus: fibers pass superomedially to spinous processes of vertebrae above, spanning 2–4 segments
Rotatores: pass superomedially to attach to junction of lamina and transverse process, or spinous process, of vertebra above their origin, spanning 1–2 segments
Posterior rami of spinal nerves
Extend head and thoracic and cervical regions of vertebral column and rotate them contralaterally; stabilize vertebrae during local movements of vertebral column; stabilize vertebrae and assist with local extension and rotary movements of vertebral column; may function as organs of proprioception
Transversus abdominis
Internal surfaces of 7th–12th costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and lateral third of inguinal ligament
Linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, pubic crest, and pecten pubis through conjoint tendon
Intercostal nerves 7–12, iliohypogastric nerve, iliolingual nerve
Compresses and supports abdominal viscera
Transversus thoracis
Posterior surface of lower sternum
Internal surface of costal cartilages 2–6
Intercostal nerves
Depress ribs
Trapezius
Medial third of superior nuchal line; external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous processes of C7–T12 vertebrae
Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula
Spinal root of accessory nerve (CN XI) (motor) and cervical nerves (C3, C4) (pain and proprioception)
Elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula; superior fibers elevate, middle fibers retract, and inferior fibers depress scapula; superior and inferior fibers act together in superior rotation of scapula
Triceps brachii
Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove
Medial head: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove
Proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm
Radial nerve (C6–C8)
Chief extensor of forearm at elbow; long head steadies head of abducted humerus
Uvula muscle
Posterior nasal spine and palatine aponeurosis
Mucosa of uvula
Cranial part of CN XI through pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (CN X) via pharyngeal plexus
Shortens uvula and pulls it superiorly
Vastus intermedius
Anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur
Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
Femoral nerve (L2–L4)
Extend leg at knee joint
Vastus lateralis
Greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera of femur
Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
Femoral nerve (L2–L4)
Extend leg at knee joint
Vastus medialis
Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur
Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
Femoral nerve (L2–L4)
Extend leg at knee joint
Vertical muscle of tongue
Superior surface of borders of tongue
Inferior surface of borders of tongue
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Flattens and broadens tongue; acts simultaneously to protrude tongue
Vocalis
Vocal process of arytenoid cartilage
Vocal ligaments
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus [CN X])
Relaxes posterior vocal ligament while maintaining (or increasing) tension of anterior part
Zygomaticus major and zygomaticus minor
Zygomatic bone anterior/posterior to temporozygomatic suture
Muscles at angle of mouth and orbicularis oris of upper lip
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Elevate and evert upper lip
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