forfeiture provisions in English law appeared in the Navigation Acts
Due to restrictions on shipping under the Navigation Acts
and the East India Company's trade monopoly, American merchant ships and privateers smuggled in much of the Asian goods found in the colonies.
Starting with the mercantilist principles of Adam Smith and the conflict between free trade and the 'notoriously restrictive' Navigation Acts
regulating national shipping, it finishes with the internationalism of the truly global, post-regulatory era.
The underlying thesis of The Capital and the Colonies is that the growth of English colonial trade and shipping in the Atlantic between 1660 and 1700 can not entirely be explained by the effects of the Navigation Acts
, as Lawrence Harper and others have contended, but attention to the development of "commercial capabilities" that allowed England "to improve efficiency, close a substantial cost gap with its Dutch rivals and make mercantilism work" (p.
The debate over the Navigation Acts
during the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774 was one such moment.
To Adam Smith (1776), these Navigation Acts
were "impertinent badges of slavery, imposed .
For example, England's restrictive trade policies embodied in the Navigation Acts
provided that ships built in New England would be sold directly to buyers in Britain.
He arrived as captain of HMS Boreas in 1785 and spent two years enforcing Britain's Navigation Acts
which were intended to keep her colonies trade exclusive to the mother country.
The Navigation Acts
would follow, as would religious regulations that called for moral reformation and the abolition of episcopacy in favor of sectarian toleration.
Implicit taxes took the form of the Navigation Acts
, which sought to regulate shipping between the colonies and its trading partners.
Adam Smith favored the Navigation Acts
of Britain as a nursery for sailors needed for national defense.
Matson goes on to argue that the impact of the Navigation Acts