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Identifying Standard English in the Caribbean with the formal domain and negative politeness practices (and denying the existence of negative politeness practices in creoles), she argues that English language teaching should be used as a vehicle for teaching students about the concept of formality and decorum.
Such hedges, as pointed out by Culpeper and Kyto (1999: 298) in their study of hedges in early Modern English dialogues, can be used both in positive and negative politeness strategies.
If we try to reduce the face-threatening effect to the hearer, we use either positive politeness or negative politeness.
Many politeness approaches to fictional texts have been modelled on Brown & Levinson's (1987) work based on the concept of face and on positive and negative politeness strategies.
The second important distinction concerns politeness strategies; there is positive politeness, achieved by the speech acts that express an attitude of solidary, of cooperation with the interlocutor, and there is negative politeness underlain by the speech acts that impose a relational distance between the speaker and the receiver.
In literary translation, Hickey (2000) concludes from his experiment (1) with English and Spanish subjects that the English group is able to quickly identify and recognise the negative politeness strategies manifested in the original English texts, while the Spanish group does not seem to perceive the linguistic behaviour in the literally translated texts to be politeness-related.
appealing to the interlocutor's empathy) and negative politeness (i.
In so doing, writing center researchers have focused mainly on how tutors use so-called negative politeness, particularly diminutive hedges like a little, as in This paragraph seems a little unfocused and modal-verb hedges like could, as in You could move this section to the end of the paper (e.
As a consequence of face vulnerability, "any rational agent will seek to avoid these face-threatening acts, or will employ certain strategies to minimize the threat" (Brown and Levinson 1987: 68) by choosing either from positive politeness strategies "oriented toward the positive face of Hearer" or from negative politeness strategies "oriented mainly toward partially satisfying (or redressing) H's negative face" (Brown and Levinson 1987: 70).
Brown and Levinson's (1987) notion of positive and negative politeness refers to linguistic devices used to satisfy positive and negative face needs.