When approaching the Nganasan
language from the perspective of the other Northern Samoyedic languages Tundra Nenets, Forest Nenets, Tundra Enets and Forest Enets, a number of Nganasan
peculiarities are easily observable.
To the oldest layer of inherited stems belong stems that have cognates in one or several Samoyed languages: Nenets (Tundra or Forest Nenets), Enets, Nganasan
, Selkup, or already vanished Kamass and Mator and which are not loans from Indo-European.
The Russian census recognizes (from West to East) the Saami, Nenets, Khanty, Sel'kup, Enets, Nganasan
, Dolgan, Even, Chukchi, Chuvan, and Eskimo/ Inuit-Yupik of the Russian Far East.
Kinship and exchange among the Nganasan
of northern Siberia.
Sino-Finnic): Lappic vuollel 'under', vuole/viille 'lower part', viilne/vuiln/vueiln/voiln/ 'under'; Mordvin al 'nether', alo/ala 'under'; Mari ul-/ulo- 'nether', ulna/ulno 'under'; Udmurt ul 'nether', ulin/ulan 'under'; Komi ulin/uvin 'under'; Mansi jala'n/joln/jalan/jalan 'below'; Khanty il/it/il 'nether'; Hungarian al- 'sub-'; Nenets nil-/nir- 'nether', yilna 'under'; Enets ido/iro 'bottom', isone 'under'; Nganasan
nilea 'nether', nileanu 'under'; Selkup iil/il/rl 'bottom'; Kamas jilda 'downwards'; Yukaghir -al 'under'.
According to grammars it includes all Finnic and Sami languages, Moksha, Udmurt, Nganasan
, Hungarian and Mansi.
The mood systems of these languages are extensive, and there seem to be some exceptions, at least the renarrative in Nganasan
, which does have a special interrogative form.
Those included the Nenets no-, no-, Nganasan
ne- and Enets i- (Castren 1854 : 436-437, 493-494, 518.
She writes about (Tundra) Nenets, Enets and Nganasan
languages as follows: "In the case of a non-highlighted position of a direct object the predicate form contains reference only to the subject of the activity [ ] In the highlighted position of a direct object the predicate, on the contrary, contains reference not only to the subject but also to the direct object [ ] [ ] the highlighted position of the direct object marked by the nominative case is expressed in a peculiar relationship with its predicate" ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.
one object) (Castren 1854 : 595-518; Kunnap 1999a : 25-26), Nganasan
From a more general perspective, Nenets pronouns for 2nd person (further person is referred to with P) and 3P (both Tundra and Forest varieties) do not derive from Proto-Samoyedic/Uralic either, which leaves Nganasan
as the only Northern Samoyedic language with a full set of personal pronouns derived from Proto-Samoyedic/Uralic.
With certain stem types, unmarked object is found in Nganasan
as well, but here it is not related to the definite-indefinite distinction.