To build on the current study, future researchers could assess how instance document users value assurance provided by other noncontent
assurance providers such as non-CPA, independent third parties.
Targeted and limited requests for noncontent
data, however, would remain governed by the Stored Communications Act's current requirements.
According to The Times, the government sought their information from Twitter without a search warrant under 18 USC 2703(d), a 1994 amendment to the Stored Communications Act that allows law enforcement access to noncontent
Internet records without demonstrating the "probable cause" needed for a traditional search warrant.
Kerr does acknowledge that the difference between content and noncontent
information can be difficult to determine.
data to which service providers must have
It distinguishes between content and noncontent
information, (11) voluntary and compelled data release, (12) and two kinds of Internet services: electronic communications services (ECS) and remote computing services (RCS).
It helps to explain why the Court distinguishes between incitement and mere advocacy; (31) "fighting words" and offensive speech; (32) content and noncontent
regulation; (33) primary and secondary effects; (34) picketing and handbilling; (35) and regulation of commercial advertising designed to restrict deceptive marketing versus a total ban on truthful advertising.
For the Internet considered as an object of study from a noncontent
perspective, see Hine (2000).
Cogar writes that there is often an expectation of privacy in the content of an e-mail, for example, but courts have ruled that there is "no legitimate expectation of privacy" for noncontent
information--such as information given to the ISP to establish the account or a log of Web sites visited--and thus "this information is not protected by the Fourth Amendment.
While under certain circumstances, a person may have an expectation of privacy in content information, a person does not have an interest in the account information given to the ISP in order to establish the e-mail account, which is noncontent
These commonalties provide opportunities for noncontent
specific professional development.
In contrast, access to noncontent
information should be treated like