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In a struggle not dissimilar to the battle between optimates and populares in the late Republic in Rome, the oligarchs split in Carthage on the idea of whether to support this body, an anti-representative body in their view, or to democratize the political institutions of Carthage.
Thus," writes Myers, "largely through the workings of the public land system, the Roman people had become divided into two great classes, which are variously designated as the Rich and the Poor, the Possessors and the Non-Possessors, the Optimates, the 'Best,' and the Populares, the 'People.
On account of their ownership of the land, the optimates (loosely speaking, a political party of the aristocracy, who were thoroughly opposed to ideas of reform at the expense of conformism and the spirit and tradition of conservative politics) controlled the livelihoods of a large part of the population.
1982), "Langage et societe: a propos des optimates et des populares," Latomus 41, 794-800.
And upon this Account it comes to pass that the Nomotheticall Authority is variously modifyed in several States and Kingdomes and in the same States or (f) Kingdomes variously in severall seasons in some Kingdomes it seems to be more absolutely settled in the Prince alone, in some it is placed in the Prince with the Assent of the Nobility, or optimates, in some there is also necessary the (g) Assent of the People, or their Delegates; in some the Legislative Authority is lodged in one Society, as in Rome, in the Senate and the Executive power in others as in the Consuls, in som both the Legislative Authority and the Executive Power is (h) lodg'd in the same Person;
Forse l'unica eccezione e rappresentata dall'agricoltura che ebbe l'attenzione di vari autori--si ricordi il De agri cultura di Catone il Vecchio o il De re rustica di Rutilio Palladio--, fatto per niente sorprendente visto che quello dei campi era il lavoro per antonomasia e assorbiva la parte maggiore delle forze lavorative; per giunta il lavoro e la vita dei campi erano considerati onorevoli anche dalla classe degli optimates che li associavano all'idea della natura e godevano del prestigio di essere stati praticati dagli antichi patres come Cincinnato.
Estuvo a punto de lograr la unificacion del imperio godo al casar a su hijas con prominentes optimates de la estirpe Amala y el mismo se caso con la hermana del rey franco.
La lengua y el modo de hablar, comun o solecista, atico o laconio, elevado o popular, tambien tendran una enorme importancia en el retrato del biografiado: en el caso de la Vida de Luculo, por ejemplo, la diferencia de pronunciacion en latin de un nombre celebre que existe entre populares y optimates marca una cesura fonetica, retorica y, a la vez, ideologica.
and in any case was not said in the context of war, but of a prosecution for murder in the aftermath of the Roman riots of that era between the partisans of the populares and optimates.
They may not be denied their proper and lawful liberties, but I question whether it be of God to interest the inferior sort in that which should be reserved inter optimates penes quo est sancire leges.
2) The "time and temper" of the Roman people, as well as the competing political ideals between the optimates (the conservative aristocrats represented by the conspirators) and the populares (the progressive party represented by Caesar and Antony) are subtly reflected in Peter Hicks's set design.
The death of the Republic, the outcome of Caesar's successful revolt against the Optimates, could not be represented as the dawn of the new era of ethical government that Caesar intended.
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- optical pyrometer
- optical resonator
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- optical scanner
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- Optical square
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