typically presents with unilateral severe pain of acute onset.
Epidural empyema is mostly caused by sinusitis, trauma associated with skull fracture and craniotomy as well as orbital cellulitis
and cranial osteomyelitis.
The differential diagnoses for periorbital swelling include orbital cellulitis
or abscess from an inflammatory or infectious disease process, trauma, orbital cyst, hypovitaminosis A with squamous metaplasia that involved the infraorbital sinus, and infiltrative or primary neoplasia.
Orbital bleeds, damage to vortex veins and local extravasation into the subconjunctival space make surgery difficult, and serious local complications such as orbital cellulitis
Patients with focal unilateral maxillary pain and fever may have orbital cellulitis
Complications of untreated or inadequately treated dacryocystitis can be severe, with mucocele formation, chronic conjunctivitis, and even orbital cellulitis
On the back of this, the chapter then describes in turn the clinical features and management of the key differential diagnoses, ie preseptal and orbital cellulitis
and thyroid orbitopathy.
Spread of untreated infection from the abscess can lead to a number of dangerous complications, including orbital cellulitis
, meningitis, subarachnoid empyema, intracranial abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and sepsis.
4) In the case of a very late presentation, an enlarging eye, proptosis, secondary glaucoma, orbital cellulitis
, unilateral pupil dilatation, heterochromic iridis, spontaneous hyphaema, pseudohypopyon or blindness can be present.
In addition, two aggressive cases of orbital cellulitis
have occurred in the USA, associated with Pythium insidiosum.
The acute orbit: preseptal (periorbital) cellulitis, subperiosteal abcess, and orbital cellulitis
due to sinusitis.
Sphenoid sinusitis can lead to complications such as orbital cellulitis
and abscess, orbital complex syndrome, blindness, sepsis, meningitis, epidural and subdural abscess, cerebral infarction, pituitary abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and internal carotid artery thromosis.