Further to comparisons with the works of references relating to the hemolymph of orthopterans
, namely the works of Wigglesworth , Arnold , Raccaud-Shoeller  and Woodring cited by Klowden  we have managed to identify four types of cells among S.
Mermithids have been observed infecting orthopterans
with high levels of infection and mortality (Mongkolkiti and Hosford, 1971; Webster and Thong, 1984).
Similarly, sound recordings can be found in online sound libraries, even if orthopterans
are usually far less covered by these databases than are birds or frogs and are difficult to identify based on sound only.
The most common insect prey was beetles and beetle larvae (Coleoptera) and Orthopterans
A within-nest comparison between the two sampling methods revealed a significant difference in the number of prey items for four categories, namely orthopterans
, "other beetles", arachnids and lepidopterans.
Due to the abundance and feasibility of morphological identification, spiders, orthopterans
, coleopterans and hemipterans were identified by families and organized by morphospecies using the Kaston (1972) key for spiders; Arnett, Downie and Jaques (1980) and Navarrete-Heredia, Newton, Thayer, Ashe and Chandler (2002) for beetles; for hemipterans and orthopterans
Bland and Jaques (1978) and Fontana, Buzzetti and Marino-Perez (2008), respectively.
Pitfall traps are also usually employed in caves (with or without bait), but this method should be used with caution since it can impact the whole terrestrial fauna, oversampling some taxonomic groups, such as collembolans, orthopterans
and cockroaches (SHARRATT et al.
The types and abundance of sensilla on mole cricket antennae differ greatly from those found in above-ground orthopterans
, such as Tetrigidae and Acrididae (Bland 1989, 1991).
Wing dimorphism is well known in different orthopterans
Among othopterans eight species were recorded jointly from wheat and weed leaves and three from weed leaves only but orthopterans
on weed leaves (23.
Toft (1980, 1981) identified two main diet patterns in tropical anurans: the "ant specialists" that eat more chitinous, slow moving arthropods such as ants and mites, and the "non-ant specialists", that eat larger, less chitinous and more mobile arthropods, such as orthopterans
and large spiders.
Recently, Shishodia and Gupta (2010) have reported 165 species of grasshoppers belonging to 105 genera and 16 families from Himachal Pradesh, therefore, orthopterans
of Khajjiar area represent more than 17% of the state fauna.