PRECLINICAL RESEARCH RESULTS Osteoarthritic joints are characterized by degradation of the articular cartilage, which provides the cushioning between bones, and by bony protrusions called osteophytes
, which interfere with function and exacerbate the pain associated with osteoarthritis.
They also scored radiographs for osteophytes
or joint-space narrowing with the OARSI method and used the Verbruggen-Veys method to identify and exclude joints that were already eroded (E phase) or remodeled (R phase) at baseline (Arthritis Rheum.
Table 1: Aetiological factors for dysphagia Diagnostic Group Example Neurological Stroke Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage Multiple Sclerosis Motor Neuron Disease Brain tumour Traumatic Brain Injury Encephalitis Post Polio Syndrome Developmental problems (Cleft palate) Musculoskeletal Cervical Osteophytes
Spondylolisthesis Rheumatoid arthritis Disc Prolapse Malignancy Tongue Gum Larynx Pharynx Oesophagus Infection Candida Streptococcal Cardio respiratory Heart Failure COPD Lung Fibrosis Iatrogenic Post intubation Post surgery Other Pharyngeal pouch Pharyngeal atresia/stenosis Cricopharyngeal spasm Oesophageal atresia Oesophageal achalasia Frailty Medication Anticholinergic medication Antibiotics Opiates Anti psychotics Benzodiazepines Calcium Channel Blockers Self Harm Bleach Fire
All inferior osteophytes
are removed, and the humeral head is either reamed for resurfacing or cut for humeral head replacement (Fig.
Relationship of osteophytes
to bone mineral density and spinal fracture in men.
Fluorosis results in osteosclerosis followed later by osteoporosis, periosteal changes including pathognomonic tumor-like zones of periosteal hyperostosis, and osteophytes
at tendon, fascial, and muscle insertions (12).
Plain radiographs of the knee joints revealed joint effusions with multiple rounded intraarticular loose bodies, erosions on the medial aspect of the tibial plateau, tricompartmental joint space narrowing, osteophytes
, subchondral cyst formation, heterotopic bone formation, and lateral subluxation of the tibia on the femur (Figure 1, 2).
Where movement is greatest, that's in the neck and lower back, the bones become thickened, and spurs called osteophytes
develop on the edges of the vertebrae.
, malalignment (sagittal plane deformity) and canal stenosis (AP diameter less than 13 mm) may be seen.
Discs become dehydrated, lose height and the vertebrae next to the discs develop bony growths called osteophytes
The subchondral cyst of degenerative joint disease enters the differential diagnosis when joint space narrowing or osteophytes
are simultaneously noted.
The aetiology of VBI symptoms can arise from both internal vascular compression such as atherosclerosis, a thromboembolus or arterial dissection as well as from external factors such as mechanical compression from hypertonic musculature, osteophytes
, cervical fracture or dislocation and head posture (Huijbregts and Vidal 2004).