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or out-group  (out′gro͞op′)
1. A group of people excluded from or not belonging to one's own group, especially when viewed as subordinate or contemptibly different.
2. A group of organisms not part of the group under consideration, used for comparison when analyzing phylogenetic relationships.
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wislizenii (three were used for genetic analysis and served as outgroup taxa) from three sites in the western Mojave Desert of Kern County, California.
Tajfel (1982) suggested that a fundamental feature of social identity is the categorisation of oneself as a member of an ingroup, while non-members are distinguished as outgroup members.
Social psychologists deem this the outgroup homogeneity effect: the tendency to classify outgroup members as more similar to one another and thus stereotype all members of the group.
Dobbs and Crano (2001) have argued that individuals who are identified are more likely to engage in behavior that is acceptable to the outgroup.
Similarly, Hewstone, Cairns, Voci, Hamberger, and Niens (2006) found that outgroup perspective-taking predicted intergroup forgiveness in a sample from Northern Ireland (see also the review and meta-analysis by Van Tongeren et al.
The ingroup (in this case, nursing professionals) must learn new knowledge about the outgroup (members of other professions).
There is very little mention of these genera in the molecular literature apart from the use of the Pezotettix as an outgroup in 2 studies (Hochkirch & Gorzig 2009; Chintauan-Marquier et al.
Based on the broad assumption that higher quality of intergroup contact should be associated with more positive intergroup attitudes, we suggest that this effect will be produced, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, at least in part because it increases the perception that outgroup members know and understand the characteristics of ingroup members, thus verifying ingroup self-perception.
The aim of the present article is to examine what factors best predict levels of outgroup prejudice among Christian, Muslim and secular youth.
Therefore, the objective of the current study was to expand the current understanding of morality and religion by examining the differences in the consequences of these identities on the stereotyping of outgroup targets.