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A powerful toxin that occurs in corals of the genus Palythoa of the South Pacific and disrupts the flow of ions across cell membranes. It is rapidly fatal to humans in very small doses and is one of the most complex naturally occurring substances.

[New Latin Paly(thoa), genus name (coined by Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux (1779-1825), French biologist, perhaps based on the name of one of the Oceanids, such as Pāsithoē, in the Theogony of Hesiod) + toxin.]
References in periodicals archive ?
On August 12, 2014, an Anchorage hospital notified the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) that a middle-aged male resident of Anchorage (patient A) had arrived in the emergency department with possible palytoxin exposure.
Many aquarium store employees and marine aquarium hobbyists are not aware of palytoxin as a potentially serious hazard associated with handling some zoanthid corals sold in aquarium stores or exchanged by hobbyists.
2005), is tolerant of environmental stresses (Sebens, 1982), demonstrates a high reproductive capacity (Acosta and Asbahr, 2000), and liberates a potent non-protein toxin called palytoxin (Seemann et al.
In this series of 26 cases, samples of the suspected seafood in 21 cases were tested by the CDC or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as negative for the following known aquatic toxins: ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, domoic acid, okadaic acid, and two blue-green algal or cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin and nodularin).
Both cicutoxin from water hemlock and palytoxin from marine organisms have unique gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric signatures and were eliminated as causative agents in the rare clusters of crayfish-transmitted Haff disease in China and Louisiana.
The first section discusses both general mechanisms acting on voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels and cholinergic receptors and specific mechanisms of palytoxin, maitotoxin, domoic acid, azaspiracids, and yessotoxins.
First evidence of palytoxin analogues from an Ostreopsis mascarenensis (Dinophyceae) benthic bloom in the southwestern Indian Ocean.
After a 60-year overview of the history and evolution of synthesis of natural products, sections on comparative design cover classics in terpenes and alkaloid synthesis, with an additional section on miscellaneous targets such as palytoxin, brevetoxin B, and indinavir.
Maths expert Simon Wilson, 60, tried to use palytoxin to make his death look like a heart attack and spare his family more pain.
A tiny dose of palytoxin paralyses the victim and death follows within moments.
that poison--called palytoxin in its modern incarnation--holds the promise of being a powerful agent against one of modern man's most stubborn opponents: cancer.