This shows that the Papal States
are as far advanced as Turkey.
One would almost imagine from the long list that is given of cannibal primates, bishops, arch-deacons, prebendaries, and other inferior ecclesiastics, that the sacerdotal order far outnumbered the rest of the population, and that the poor natives were more severely priest-ridden than even the inhabitants of the papal states
Ten young descendants of Marius and the Gracchi, barefooted and out at elbows, with one hand resting on the hip and the other gracefully curved above the head, stared at the traveller, the post-chaise, and the horses; to these were added about fifty little vagabonds from the Papal States
, who earned a pittance by diving into the Tiber at high water from the bridge of St.
Historians specializing in the Roman Inquisition--also known as the Italian or Papal Inquisition--offer a new perspective by contrasting the central institution in Rome with structures and practices in other cities within the Papal States
and in smaller courts and towns elsewhere in Christian Europe.
Cessario argues that Pius IX decided the case in accordance with what Canon and civil law required in the Papal states
of the late 1850s.
But he has largely shed the very pronounced monarchical, imperial trappings of the papacy that ruled the Papal States
before the Italian unification.
The United States maintained consular relations with the Papal States
from 1797 to 1870 and diplomatic relations with the Pope, in his capacity as head of the Papal States
, from 1848 to 1868, though not at the ambassadorial level.
Coppa suggests the continued struggle over the papal states
in the 19th century decisively shaped the Holy See's diplomacy in the 20th.
As the second city of the Papal States
, Bologna was imbued with a sense of corporate republicanism and was comparatively free from papal interference, which allowed it the resources and freedom to approach poor relief with energy and ingenuity.
The attachment in that year of the duchies to Piedmont-Sardinia on the basis of the popular will and the overthrow of the old order in Sicily and the South by the Garibaldian revolution meant that papal rule in central Italy was now an obvious anachronism, and that the Papal States
stood in the way of a united Italy.
In 1870, Italian troops took control of the Papal States
, leading to the unification of Italy.
With several popes approving it in Southern Italy, Spain, Austria, Portugal, and in Papal States
, before Pope Benedict XIII placed the feast on the universal calendar of the church in 1726.